Bo Qiu
Professor of Oceanography
Department of Oceanography
School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology
University of Hawaii at Manoa
1000 Pope Road
Honolulu, HI 96822

Office: (808) 956-4098
Fax: (808) 956-9225

Google Scholar profile
  • Ph.D. 1990, Physical Oceanography, Kyoto University
  • M.Sc. 1986, Physical Oceanography, Kyoto University
  • B.Sc. 1984, Geophysics, Kyoto University

  • Professor, Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, 2003-present.
  • Associate Professor, Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, 1998-2003.
  • Assistant Professor, Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, 1993-1998.
  • Assistant Scientist, Dept of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1992-1993.
  • Postdoc Investigator, Dept of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1990-1992.


    OCN662: Marine Hydrodynamics

  • Lecturer, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS) Ocean Sciences Distinguished Lecture, 2022
  • Fellow, American Geophysical Union, 2021; Citation: "For pioneering and seminal contributions on ocean interactions across scales from km to basin-scales, including mesoscale eddies"
  • Recipient, The 2021 Henry Stommel Research Medal of American Meteorological Society, 2021; Citation: "For seminal contributions using observations, models, and theory to understand the dynamics of the North Pacific Ocean circulation and its role in the climate system"
  • Fellow, American Meteorological Society, 2021
  • Recipient, The 2019 Prize of the Japan Oceanography Society (JOS_ceremony), 2019
  • Recipient, University of Hawaii Board of Regents' Medal for Excellence in Research, 2018
  • Recipient, New Investigators Award from NASA's Mission To Planet Earth (MTPE) Program, 1996
  • Recipient, The Okada Prize from the Oceanographic Society of Japan, 1993
  • Member, American Meteorological Society Oceanographic Research Awards Committee, 2023-present
  • Member, American Geophysical Union Ocean Sciences Section Canvassing Committee, 2024-present
  • Member, American Geophysical Union Fellows Committee, 2022-2023
  • Co-chair, PICES Working Group 50: Sub-mesoscale Processes and Marine Ecosystems, 2022-present
  • Member, Japan Oceanographic Society Yoshida Award Selection Committee, 2022-2023
  • Editor, Geophysical Research Letters of AGU, 2021-present
  • Member, International CLIVAR Tropical Pacific Decadal Variability (TPDV) Working Group, 2021-present
  • Member, NASA's Ocean Surface Topography Science Team (OSTST), 2013-present
  • Member, Pacific Asian Marginal Seas (PAMS) Science Steering Committee, 2013-present
  • Member, NASA's Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) Science Team, 2016-2020
  • Member, International CLIVAR NPOCE Program Science Steering Committee, 2010-present
  • Councilor (Hyou-gi-in), The Oceanographic Society of Japan, 1997-present
  • Panelist, U.S. Argo Implementation Panel, 2004-2018
  • Member, JAMSTEC Research Institute for Global Change (RIGC) Advisory Committee, 2011-2014
  • Panelist, International CLIVAR Pacific Panel, 2005-2012
  • Contributing Author, The IPCC 5th Assessment Report: "The Physical Science Basis", 2011-2012
  • Panelist, International CLIVAR Asian-Australian Monsoon Panel, 2008-2010
  • Co-chair, US-CLIVAR Western Boundary Current Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Working Group, 2007-2009
  • Coordinator, IOC/WESTPAC Ocean Dynamics and Climate Programme, 2002-2008
  • Contributing Author, The IPCC 4th Assessment Report: The Physical Science Basis, 2005/06
  • Panelist, U.S. CLIVAR Pacific Implementation Panel, 1999-2003

  • 2023

    Capotondi, A., et al., 2023: Mechanisms of tropical Pacific decadal variability. Nature Rev. Earth Environ.,

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and E. Oka, 2023: Why did the 2017 Kuroshio Large Meander become the longest in the past 70 years? Geophys. Res. Lett., 50, e2023GL103548. https://doi. org/10.1029/2023GL103548.

    Johnson, G.C., and R. Lumpkin, et al., 2023: Global Ocean [in "State of the Climate in 2022"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 104, S146-S206,

    Wang, H., B. Qiu, H. Liu, and Z. Zhang, 2023: Doubling of surface ocean meridional heat transport by non-symmetry of mesoscale eddies. Nature Commu., 14:5460,

    Yang, C., X. Cheng, J.-S. von Storch, J. Qin, and B. Qiu, 2023: Interbasin differences in interannual variations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current transport. J. Geophys. Res., 312,

    Zhao, Z. and B. Qiu, 2023: Seasonal West-east seesaw of M2 internal tides from the Luzon Strait. J. Geophys. Res., 312,

    Qiu, B., 2023: Observational and theoretical studies of the North Pacific upper ocean circulation and its variability. Oceanography in Japan, 32, 67-93.

    Zhang, Z., Y. Liu, B. Qiu, et al., 2023: Submesoscale inverse energy cascade enhances Southern Ocean eddy heat transport. Nature Communications, 14, 1335,

    Capotondi, A., and B. Qiu, 2023: Decadal variability of the Pacific overturning circulation and the role of local wind forcing. J. Climate, 36, 1001-1015.

    Song, X., H. Cao, B. Qiu, W. Wang, and W. Yu, 2023: Subsurface imbalance stimulated in a mesoscale eddy. Part I: Observations. Deep-Sea Res., 196,

    Gan, B., T. Wang, L. Wu, J. Li, B. Qiu, H. Yang, and L. Zhang, 2023: A mesoscale ocean-atmosphere coupled pathway for decadal variability of the Kuroshio Extension system. J. Climate, 36, 485-510.

  • 2022

    Torres, H.S., P. Klein, J. Wang, A. Wineteer, B. Qiu, et al., 2022: Wind work at the air-sea interface: a modeling study in anticipation of future space missions. Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8041-8058.

    Qiu, B., T. Nakano, S. Chen, and P. Klein, 2022: Bi-directional energy cascades in the Pacific Ocean from equator to subarctic gyre. Geophys. Res. Lett., 49, e2022GL097713. Supporting Information.

    Schonau, M.C., D.L. Rudnick, G. Gopalakrishnan, B.D. Cornuelle, and B. Qiu, 2022: Mean, annual and interannual circulation and volume transport in the western tropical North Pacific from the Western Pacific Ocean State Estimates (WPOSE). J. Geophys. Res., 126, doi: 10.1029/2021JC018213.

    Sun, Z., Z. Zhang, B. Qiu, C. Zhou, W. Zhao, and J. Tian, 2022: Subsurface mesoscale eddies observed in the northeastern South China Sea: Dynamic features and water mass transport. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 52, 841-855.

    Sasaki, H., B. Qiu, P. Klein, M. Nonaka, and Y. Sasai, 2022: Interannual variations of submesoscale circulations in the subtropical Northeastern Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 49, e2021GL097664.

    Song, X., X. Xie, B. Qiu, H. Cao, S.-P. Xie, Z. Chen, and W. Yu, 2022: Air-sea latent heat flux and anomalies induced by oceanic submesoscale processes: An observational case study. Front. Mar. Sci., 9, 850207. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2022.850207.

  • 2021

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2021: Revisit of the occurrence of the Kuroshio large meander south of Japan. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51, 3679-3694.

    Yang, P., Z. Jing, B. Sun, L. Wu, B. Qiu, et al., 2021: On the upper-ocean vertical eddy heat transport in the Kuroshio extension. Part II: effects of air-sea interactions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51, 3297-3312.

    Qiu, B., P.L. Colin, and S. Chen, 2021: Time-varying upper ocean circulation and control of coral bleaching in the western tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 48, e2021GL093632. Related MITgcm web highlight: Life in Hot Water.

    Oka, E., H. Nishikawa, S. Sugimoto, B. Qiu, and N. Schdeider, 2021: Subtropical mode water in a recent persisting Kuroshio large-meander period: part I -- formation and advection over the entire distribution. J. Oceanogr., 77, 781-795.

    Chen, X., B. Qiu, S. Chen, and Y. Qi, 2021: Period-lengthening of the Mindanao Current variability from the long-term tide gauge sea level measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 126, e2020JC016932.

    International Altimetry Team, 2021: Altimetry for the future: Building on 25 years of progress. Adv. Space Res., 68, 319-363.

    Chen, S., and B. Qiu, 2021: Surface height variability in the 30-120 km wavelength band from altimetry along-track observations. J. Geophys. Res., 126, e2021JC017284. https://doi. org/10.1029/2021JC017284.

    Sugimoto, S., B. Qiu, and N. Schneider, 2021: Local atmospheric response to the Kuroshio Large Meander path in summer and its remote influence on the climate of Japan. J. Climate, 34, 3571-3589.

    Miao, M., Z. Zhang, B. Qiu, et al., 2021: On contributions of multiscale dynamic processes to the steric height in the Northeastern South China Sea as revealed by morred observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 48, e2021GL093829.

    Galperin, B., S. Sukoriansky, and B. Qiu, 2021: Seasonal oceanic variability on meso- and submesoscales: a turbulence perspective. Ocean Dyn., 71,

    Yang, H., L. Wu, P. Chang, B. Qiu, et al., 2021: Mesoscale energy balance and air-sea interaction in the Kuroshio Extension: Low-frequency versus high-frequency variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51, 895-910.

    Takahashi, N., T. Hayasaka, B. Qiu, and R. Yamaguchi, 2021: Observed Response of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud to the Interannual Variations of Summertime Oyashio Extension SST Front. Climate Dyn.,

    Zhang, Z., X. Zhang, B. Qiu, et al. , 2021: Submesoscale currents in the Subtropical upper ocean observed by long-term high-resolution mooring arrays. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51, 187-206.

    Yang, P., Z. Jing, B. Sun, L. Wu, B. Qiu, P. Chang, and S. Ramachadran, 2021: On the upper-ocean vertical heat transport in the Kuroshio Extension. Part I: Variability and Dynamics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51, 229-246.

  • 2020

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, N. Schneider, E. Oka, and S. Sugimoto, 2020: On reset of the wind-forced decadal Kuroshio Extension variability in late 2017. J. Climate, 33, 10813-10828.

    Jing, Z., and Co-authors, 2020: Maintenance of mid-latitude oceanic fronts by mesoscale eddies. Sci. Adv., 6, eaba7880.

    Sasaki, H., B. Qiu, P. Klein, Y. Sasai, and M. Nonaka, 2020: Interannual to decadal variations of submesoscale motions around the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent. Fluids, 5, 116; doi:10.3390/fluids5030116.

    Zhang, Z., and B. Qiu, 2020: Surface chlorophyll enhancement in mesoscale eddies by submesoscale spiral bands. Geophys. Res. Lett, 47, e2020GL088820.

    Sun, Z., Z. Zhang, B. Qiu, et al., 2020: Three-dimensional structure and interannual variability of the Kuroshio Loop Current in the northeastern South China Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 50, 2437-2455.

    Travis, S., and B. Qiu, 2020: Seasonal reversal of the near-surface chlorophyll response to the presence of mesoscale eddies in the South Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent. J. Geophys. Res., 125, e2019JC015752.

    Xia, Y., Y. Du, B. Qiu, X. Cheng, T. Wang, and Q. Xie, 2020: The characteristics of the mid-depth striations in the North Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 162, 103307.

    Oka, E., S. Kouketsu, D. Yanagimoto, D. Ito, Y. Kawai, S. Sugimoto, and B. Qiu, 2020: Formation of Central Mode Water based on two zonal hydrographic sections in spring 2013 and 2016. J. Oceanogr., 76, 000-000.

    Zhang, Y., Z. Zhang, D. Chen, B. Qiu, and W. Wei, 2020: Strengthening of the Kuroshio current by intensifying tropical cyclones. Science, 368, 988-993.

    Sugimoto, S., B. Qiu, and M. Omori, 2020: Marked coastal warming off Tokai attributable to Kuroshio large meander. J. Oceanogr., 76, 141-154.

    Zhang, Z., Y. Zhang, B. Qiu, H. Sasaki, Z. Sun, X. Zhang, W. Zhao, and J. Tian, 2020: Spatiotemporal characteristics and generation mechanisms of submesoscale currents in the northeastern South China Sea revealed by numerical simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 125, e2019JC015404.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, P. Klein, H. Torres, J. Wang, L.-L. Fu, & D. Menemenlis, 2020: Reconstructing upper ocean vertical velocity field from sea surface height in the presence of unbalanced motion. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 50, 55-79.

  • 2019

    Yamagami, Y., Y. Tozuka, and B. Qiu, 2019: Interannual variability of the Natal Pulse. J. Geophys. Res., 124, 9258-9276.

    Zedler, S.E., B.S. Powell, B. Qiu, and D.L. Rudnick, 2019: Energy transfer in the western tropical Pacific. Oceanography, 32(4), 136-145.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, B. Powell, P.L. Colin, D.L. Rudnick, and M.C. Schonau, 2019: Nonlinear short-term upper ocean circulation variability in the tropical western Pacific. Oceanography, 32(4), 22-31.

    Johnston, T.M.S., and Co-authors, 2019: Flow encountering abrupt topography (FLEAT): A multiscale observational and modeling program to understand how topography affects flows in the western North Pacific. Oceanography, 32(4), 10-21.

    Yang, H., P. Chang, B. Qiu, Q. Zhang, L. Wu, Z. Chen, and H. Wang, 2019: Mesoscale air-sea interaction and its role in eddy energy dissipation in the Kuroshio Extension. J. Climate, 32, 8659-8676.

    Wu, B., X. Lin, and B. Qiu, 2019: On the seasonal variability of the Oyashio extension fronts. Climate Dyn., 53, 7011-7025.

    Todd, R.E., and Co-authors, 2019: Global perspectives on observing ocean boundary current systems. Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 423.

    Zhao, Z., J. Wang, D. Menemenlis, L.-L. Fu, S. Chen, and B. Qiu, 2019: Decomposition of the multimodal multidirectional M2 internal tide field. J. Atmos. Ocean Tech., 36, 1157-1173.

    Torres, H.S., P. Klein, L. Siegelman, B. Qiu, S. Chen, C. Ubelmann, J. Wang, D. Menemenlis, and L.-L. Fu, 2019: Diagnosing ocean-wave-turbulence interactions from space. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46,

    Wang, M., Y. Du, B. Qiu, S.-P. Xie, and M. Feng, 2019: Dynamics on seasonal variability of EKE associated with TIWs in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 49, 1503-1519.

    Klein, P., G. Lapeyre, L. Siegelman, B. Qiu, L.-L. Fu, H. Torres, Z. Su, D. Menemenlis, and S. Le Gentil, 2019: Ocean-scale interactions from space. Earth Sace Sci., 6, 795-817.

    Mei, H., Y. Qi, B. Qiu, X. Cheng, and X. Wu, 2019: Influence of an island on hysteresis of a western boundary current flowing across a gap. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 49, 1353-1366.

    Zhang, Z., B. Qiu, P. Klein, and S. Travis, 2019: The influence of geostrophic strain on oceanic ageostrophic motion and surface chlorophyll. Nature Commun., 10, 2838 doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10883-w.

    Yamaguchi, R., T. Suga, K.L. Richards, and B. Qiu, 2019: Diagnosing the development of seasonal stratification using the potential energy anomaly in the North Pacific. Climate Dyn., 53, DOI:10.1007/s00382-019-04816-y.

    Morrow, R., and Co-authors, 2019: Global observations of fine-scale ocean surface topography with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 232.

    Wu, C.-R., Y.-F. Lin, and B. Qiu, 2019: Impact of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation on the Pacific North Equatorial Current bifurcation. Sci. Rep., 9, 2162.

    Wang, J., L.-L. Fu., H. Torris, S. Chen, B. Qiu, and D. Menemenlis, 2019: On the spatial scales to be resolved by the Surface Water and Ocean Topography Ka-band radar interferometer. J. Atmos. Ocean Tech., 36, 87-99.

    Qiu, B., 2019: Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (3rd Edn), edited by J.K. Cochran, H. Bokuniewicz, P. Yager. Academic Press, 384-394.

  • 2018

    Delman, A.S., T. Lee, and B. Qiu, 2018: Interannual to multidecadal forcing of mesoscale eddy kinetic energy in the subtropical southern Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 123,

    Zhang, Z., and B. Qiu, 2018: Evolution of submesoscale ageostrophic motions through the life cycle of oceanic mesoscale eddies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45,

    Torres, H.S., P. Klein, D. Menemenlis, B. Qiu, Z. Su, J. Wang, S. Chen, and L.-L. Fu, 2018: Partitioning ocean motions into balanced motions and internal gravity waves: A modeling study in anticipation of future space missions. J. Geophys. Res., 123,

    Zhang, Z., B. Qiu, J. Tian, W. Zhao, and X. Huang, 2018: Latitude-dependent finescale turbulent shear generations in the Pacific tropical-extratropical upper ocean. Nature Commun., 9, 4086 doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06260-8.

    Yang, H., B. Qiu, P. Chang, L. Wu, S. Wang, Z. Chen, and Y. Yang, 2018: Decadal variability of eddy characteristics and energetics in the Kuroshio Extension: Unstable versus stable states. J. Geophys. Res., 123,

    Zhu, Y., B. Qiu, X. Lin, and F. Wang, 2018: Interannual eddy kinetic energy modulations in the Agulhas Return Current. J. Geophys. Res., 123, 6449-6462,

    Cheng, X.. J.P. McCreary, B. Qiu, Y. Qi, Y. Du, and X. Chen, 2018: Dynamics of eddy generation in the central Bay of Bengal. J. Geophys. Res., 123, 6861-6875,

    Wu, B., X. Lin, and B. Qiu: Meridional shift of the Oyashio Front in the past 36 years. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 9042-9048,

    Chen, X., B. Qiu, S. Chen, X. Cheng, and Y. Qi, 2018: Interannual modulations of the 50-day oscillations in the Celebes Sea: Dynamics and impact. J. Geophys. Res., 123, 4666-4679,

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, P. Klein, J. Wang, H. Torres, L.-L. Fu and D. Menemenlis, 2018: Seasonality in transition scale from balanced to unbalanced motions in the world ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48, 591-605.

    Oka, E., M. Ishii, T. Nakano, T. Suga, S. Kouketsu, M. Miyamoto, H. Nakano, B. Qiu, S. Sugimoto, Y. Takatani, 2018: Fifty years of the 137E repeat hydrographic section in the western North Pacific Ocean. J. Oceanogr., 74, 115-145.

    Wang, J., L.-L. Fu, B. Qiu, D. Menemenlis, J.T. Farrar, Y. Chao, A.F. Thompson, and M.M. Flexas, 2018: An observing system simulation experiment for the calibration and validation of the Surface Water Ocean Topography sea surface height measurement using in situ platforms. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 35, 281-297.

  • 2017

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and N. Schneider, 2017: Dynamical links between the decadal variability of the Oyashio and Kuroshio Extensions. J. Climate, 30, 9591-9605.

    Sasaki, H., P. Klein, Y. Sasai, and B. Qiu, 2017: Reginality and seasonality of submesoscale and mesoscale turbulence in the North Pacific Ocean. Ocean Dyn., 67, 1195-1216.

    Zhang, Z., W. Zhao, B. Qiu, and J. Tian, 2017: Anticyclonic eddy shedding from Kuroshio loop and the accompanying cyclonic eddy in the northeastern South China Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 47, 1243-1259.

    Yang, Y., X.S. Liang, B. Qiu, and S. Chen, 2017: On the decadal variability of the eddy kinetic energy in the Kuroshio Extension. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 47, 1169-1187.

    Minobe, S., M. Terada, B. Qiu, and N. Schneider, 2017: Western boundary sea level: A theory, rule of thumb, and application to climate models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 47, 957-977.

    Cheng, X., J.P. McCreary, B. Qiu, Y. Qi, and Y. Du, 2017: Intraseasonal-to-semiannual variability of sea-surface height in the eastern, equatorial Indian Ocean and southern Bay of Bengal. J. Geophys. Res., 122, doi:10.1002/2016JC012662.

    Wang, M., Y. Du, B. Qiu, X. Cheng, Y. Luo, X. Chen, and M. Feng, 2017: Mechanism of seasonal eddy kinetic energy variability in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 122, doi:10.1002/2017JC012711.

    Travis, S., and B. Qiu, 2017: Decadal variability in the South Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent and regional mesoscale eddy variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 47, 499-512.

    Cheng, Y.-H., C.-R. Ho, Q. Zheng, B. Qiu, J. Hu, and N.-J. Kuo, 2017: Statistical features of eddies approaching the Kuroshio east of Taiwan Island and Luzon Island. J. Oceanogr., 73, 427-438.

    Qiu, B., T. Nakano, S. Chen, and P. Klein, 2017: Submesoscale transition from geostrophic flows to internal waves in the northwestern Pacific upper ocean. Nature Commun., 8, 14055, doi:10.1038/ncomms14055.

  • 2016

    Minobe, S., B. Qiu, M. Nonaka, and H. Nakamura, 2016: Air-sea interaction over the western boundary currents in the western Pacific. Indo-Pacific Climate Variability and Predictability, T. Yamaga and S. Behara, Eds., World Scientific Series on Asia-Pacific Weather and Climate, Vol. 7, World Scientific, 187-221,

    Chen, X., B. Qiu, Y. Dan, S. Chen, and Y. Qi, 2016: Interannual and interdecadal variability of the North Equatorial Countercuurent in the western Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 7743-7758.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and N. Schneider, 2016: Inter-decadal modulations in the dynamical state of the Kuroshio Extension system: 1905-2015. CLIVAR Exchanges No. 69, 20(1),6-9.

    Kilpatrick, T., N. Schneider, and B. Qiu, 2016: Atmospheric response to a midlatitude SST front: Alongfront winds. J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 3489-3509.

    Masunaga, R., H. Nakamura, T. Miyasaka, K. Nishii, and B. Qiu, 2016: Interannual modulations of oceanic imprints on the wintertime atmospheric boundary layer under the changing dynamical regimes of the Kuroshio Extension. J. Climate, 29, 3273-3296.

    Zhang, Z., J. Tian, B. Qiu, W. Zhao, P. Chang, D. Wu, and X. Wan, 2016: Observed 3D studture, generation, and dissipation of oceanic eddies in the South China Sea. Sci. Rep., 6, 24349; doi: 10.1038/srep24349.

    Revelard, A., C. Frankignoul, N. Sennechael, Y.-O. Kwon, and B. Qiu, 2016: Influence of the decadal variability of the Kuroshio Extension on the atmospheric circulation in the cold season. J. Climate, 29, 2123-2144.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, P. Klein, C. Ubelmann, L.-L. Fu, and H. Sasaki, 2016: Reconstructability of 3-dimensional upper ocean circulation from SWOT sea surface height measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 46, 947-963.

    Kida, S., B. Qiu, J. Yang, and X. Lin, 2016: The annual cycle of the Japan Sea throughflow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 46, 23-39.

  • 2015

    Qiu, B., D.L. Rudnick, I. Cerovecki, B.D. Cornuelle, S. Chen, M.C. Schonau, J.L. McClean, and G. Gopalakrishnan, 2015: The Pacific North Equatorial Current: New insights from the Origins of the Kuroshio and Mindanao Currents (OKMC) project. Oceanography, 28(4), 24-33.

    Schonau, M.C., D.L. Rudnick, I. Cerovecki, G. Gopalakrishnan, B.D. Cornuelle, J.L. McClean, and B. Qiu, 2015: The Mindanao Current: Mean structure and connectivity. Oceanography, 28(4), 34-45.

    Chen, X., B. Qiu, S. Chen, Y. Qi, and Y. Du, 2015: Seasonal eddy kinetic energy modulations along the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the western Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 6351-6362, doi:10.1002/2015JC011054.

    Lee, E., Y. Noh, B. Qiu, and S.-W. Yeh, 2015: Seasonal variation of the upper ocean responding to surface heating in the North Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 5631-5647, doi:10.1002/2015JC010800.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, D. Rudnick, and Y. Kashino, 2015: A new paradigm for the North Pacific subthermocline low-latitude western boundary current system. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 2407-2423.

    Schneider, N., and B. Qiu, 2015: The atmospheric response to weak sea surface temperature fronts. J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 3356-3377.

    Oka, E., B. Qiu, Y. Takatani, K. Enyo, D. Sasano, N. Kosugi, M. Ishii, T. Nakano, and T. Suga, 2015: Decadal variability of Subtropical Mode Water subduction and its impact on biogeochemistry. J. Oceanogr., 71, 389-400.

    Hu, D., L. Wu, W. Cai, A. Sen Gupta, A. Ganachaud, B. Qiu, etal., 2015: Pacific western boundary currents and their roles in climate. Nature, 522, 299-308.

    Chen, X., B. Qiu, X. Cheng, Y. Qi, and Y. Du, 2015: Intra-seasonal variability of Pacific-origin sea level anomalies around the Philippine Archipelago. J. Oceanogr., 71, 239-249.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, L. Wu, and S. Kida, 2015: Wind- versus eddy-forced regional sea level trends and variability in the North Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 28, 1561-1577.

    Chen, Z., L. Wu, B. Qiu, L. Li, D. Hu, C. Liu, F. Jia, and X. Liang, 2015: Strengthening Kuroshio observed at its origin during November 2010 to October 2012. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 2460-2470, doi:10.1002/2014JC010590.

  • 2014

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, P. Klein, H. Sasaki, and Y. Sasai, 2014: Seasonal mesoscale and submesoscale eddy variability along the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 3079-3098.

    Sasaki, H., P. Klein, B. Qiu, and Y. Sasai, 2014: Impact of oceanic-scale interactions on the seasonal modulation of ocean dynamics by the atmosphere. Nature Communications, 5:5636, Doi:10.1038/ncomms6636.

    Wang, L.-C., C.-R. Wu, and B. Qiu, 2014: Modulation of Rossby waves on the Pacific North Equatorial Current bifurcation associated with the 1976 climate regime shift. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 6669-6679, doi:10.1002/2014JC010233.

    Zhang, Z., W. Wang, and B. Qiu, 2014: Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies. Science, 345, 322-324, DOI: 10.1126/science.1252418. Supplementary Materials.

    Jing, Z., L. Wu, and B. Qiu, 2014: Enhanced 2-h~8-day oscillations associated with Tropical Instability Waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 1908-1918.

    Lien, R.-C., B. Ma, Y.-H. Cheng, C.-R. Ho, B. Qiu, C.M. Lee, and M.-H. Chang, 2014: Modulation of Kuroshio transport by mesoscale eddies at the Luzon Strait entrance. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 2129-2142, doi:10.1002/2013JC009548.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, N. Schneider, and B. Taguchi, 2014: A coupled decadal prediction of the dynamic state of the Kuroshio Extension system. J. Climate, 27, 1751-1764.

    Kilpatrick, T., N. Schneider, and B. Qiu, 2014: Boundary layer convergence induced by strong winds across a midlatitude SST front. J. Climate, 27, 1698-1718.

    Chen, Z., L. Wu, B. Qiu, S. Sun, and F. Jia, 2014: Seasonal variation of the South Equatorial Current bifurcation off Madagascar. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 618-631.

  • 2013

    Kida, S., and B. Qiu, 2013: An exchange flow between the Okhotsk Sea and the North Pacific driven by the East Kamchatka Current. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6747-6758, doi:10.1002/2013JC009464.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and H. Sasaki, 2013: Generation of the North Equatorial Undercurrent jets by triad baroclinic Rossby wave interactions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 2682-2698.

    Zhuang, W., B. Qiu, and Y. Du, 2013: Low-frequency western Pacific Ocean sea level and circulation changes due to the connectivity of the Philippine archipelago. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6759-6773, doi:10.1002/2013JC009376.

    Imawaki, S., A.S. Bower, L. Beal, and B. Qiu, 2013: Western Boundary Currents. In Ocean Circulation and Climate - A 21st Century Perspective, 2nd Edition, G. Siedler, S.M. Griffies, W.J. Gould and J. Church (eds.); Academic Press, pp.305-338.

    Katsura, S., E. Oka, B. Qiu, and N. Schneider, 2013: Formation and subduction of North Pacific Tropical Water and their interannual variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 2400-2415.

    Hsin, Y.-C., B. Qiu, T.-L. Chiang, C.-R. Wu, 2013: Seasonal to interannual variations in the intensity and central position of the surface Kuroshio east of Taiwan. J. Geophys. Res., 118, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20323.

    Qiu, B., D.L. Rudnick, S. Chen, and Y. Kashino, 2013: Quasi-stationary North Equatorial Undercurrent jets across the tropical North Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2183-2187, doi:10.1002/grl.50394.

    Sun, S., L. Wu and B. Qiu, 2013: Response of the inertial recirculation to intensified stratification in a two-layer quasigeostrophic ocean circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 1254-1269.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2013: Concurrent decadal mesoscale eddy modulations in the western North Pacific subtropical gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 344-358.

    Cronin, M.F., N.A. Bond, J.T. Farrar, H. Ichikawa, S.R. Jayne, Y. Kawai, M. Konda, B. Qiu, L. Rainville, H. Tomita, 2013: Formation and erosion of the seasonal thermocline in the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre. Deep-Sea Res. II, 85, 62-74.

    Yim, B.-Y., Y. Noh, S.-W. Yeh, J.-S. Kug, H.-S. Min, and B. Qiu, 2013: Ocean mixed layer processes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in coupled general circulation models. Clim. Dyn., 41, 1407-1417, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1630-7.

  • 2012

    Hsin, Y.-C., and B. Qiu, 2012: The impact of Eastern-Pacific versus Central-Pacific El Ninos on the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C11017, doi:10.1029/2012JC008362.

    Chang, C.-H., S.-P. Xie, N. Schneider, B. Qiu, J. Small, W. Zhuang, B. Taguchi, H. Sasaki, and X. Lin, 2012: East Pacific ocean eddies and their relationship to subseasonal variability in Central American wind jets. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C10001, doi:10.1029/2011JC007315.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and G.S. Carter, 2012: Time-varying parametric subharmonic instability from repeat CTD surveys in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C09012, doi:10.1029/2012JC007882.

    Hsin, Y.-C., and B. Qiu, 2012: Seasonal fluctuations of the surface North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) across the Pacific basin. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C06001, doi:10.1029/2011JC007794.

    Oka, E., B. Qiu, S. Kouketsu, K. Uehara, and T. Suga, 2012: Decadal seesaw of the Central and Subtropical Mode Water formation associated with the Kuroshio Extension variability. J. Oceanogr., 68, 355-360.

    Wu, L., W. Cai, L. Zhang, H. Nakamura, A. Timmermann, T. Joyce, M.J. McPhaden, M. Alexander, B. Qiu, M. Visbeck, and P. Chang, 2012: Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents. Nature Clim. Change, 2, DOI:10.1038/NCLIMATE1353.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2012: Multi-decadal sea level and gyre circulation variability in the northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 193-206.

    Oka, E., and B. Qiu, 2012: Progress of North Pacific mode water research in the past decade. J. Oceanogr., 68, 5-20.

  • 2011

    Yoshida, S., B. Qiu, and P. Hacker, 2011: Low-frequency eddy modulations in the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent: Observations and connection to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C12009, doi:10.1029/2011JC007286.

    Ganachaud, A., A. Sen Gupta, J. Orr, S. Wijffels, K. Ridgway, M. Hemer, C. Maes, C. Steinberg, A. Tribollet, B. Qiu, and J. Kruger, 2011: Observed and expected changes to the tropical Pacific Ocean. In: Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change (J.D. Bell, J.E. Johnson and A.J. Hobday eds.). Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia. pp. 101-188.

    Jia, F., L. Wu, and B. Qiu, 2011: Seasonal modulation of eddy kinetic energy and its formation mechanism in the southeast Indian Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 657-665.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2011: Effect of decadal Kuroshio Extension jet and eddy variability on the modification of North Pacific Intermediate Water. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 503-515.

    Qiu, B., and Y. Masumoto, 2011: Oceanic processes influencing SST in regions related to the Asian-Australian monsoon system. In "The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast (2nd Ed.)", edited by C.-P. Chang et al., World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 525-534.

    Jia, F., L. Wu, J. Lan, and B. Qiu, 2011: Interannual modulation of eddy kinetic energy in the southeast Indian Ocean by Southern Annular Mode. J. Geophys. Res., 116, doi:10.1029/2010JC006699.

  • 2010

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2010: Interannual-to-decadal variability in the bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current off the Philippines. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 2525-2538.

    Lee, T., S. Hakkinen, K. Kelly, B. Qiu, H. Bonekamp, and E.J. Lindstrom, 2010: Satellite observations of ocean circulation changes associated with climate variability. Oceanography, 23(4), 70-81.

    Kelly, K.A., R.J. Small, R.M. Samelson, B. Qiu, T.M. Joyce, Y.-O. Kwon and M.F. Cronin, 2010: Western boundary currents and frontal air-sea interaction: Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. J. Climate, 23, 5644-5667.

    Kwon, Y.-O., M.A. Alenxader, N.A. Bond, C. Frankignoul, H. Nakamura, B. Qiu, and L. Thompson, 2010: Role of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio-Oyashio systems in large-scale atmosphere-ocean interaction: A review. J. Climate, 23, 3249-3281.

    Taguchi, B., B. Qiu, M. Nonaka, H. Sasaki, S.-P. Xie, and N. Schneider, 2010: Decadal variability of the Kuroshio Extension: mesoscale eddies and recirculations. Ocean Dyn., 60, 673-691.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2010: Eddy-mean flow interaction in the decadally-modulating Kuroshio Extension system. Deep-Sea Res. II, 57, 1098-1110.

    Yoshida, S., B. Qiu, and P. Hacker, 2010: Wind generated eddy characteristics in the lee of the island of Hawaii. J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/2009JC005417.

    Chen, S., and B. Qiu, 2010: Mesoscale eddies northeast of the Hawaiian archipelago from satellite altimeter observations. J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/2009JC005698.

    Yim, B.-Y., Y. Noh, B. Qiu, S.-H. You, and J.-H. Yoon, 2010: The vertical structure of eddy heat transport simulated by an eddy-resolving OGCM. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 340-353.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2010: Interannual variability of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent and its associated mesoscale eddy field. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 213-225.

  • 2005 - 2009

    Jayne, S., N. Hogg, S. Waterman, L. Rainville, K. Donahue, D. Watts, K. Tracey, J. McClean, M. Maltrud, B. Qiu, S. Chen, and P. Hacker, 2009: The Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation gyres. Deep-Sea Res., 56, 2088-2099.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and W.S. Kessler, 2009: Source of the 70-day mesoscale eddy variability in the Coral Sea and the North Fiji Basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 404-420.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, P. Hacker, N. Hogg, S. Jayne, and H. Sasaki, 2008: The Kuroshio Extension northern recirculation gyre: Profiling float measurements and forcing mechanism. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1764-1779.

    Scott, R.B., B.K. Arbic, C.L. Holland, A. Sen, and B. Qiu, 2008: Zonal versus meridional velocity variance in satellite observations and realistic and idealized ocean circulation models. Ocean Modelling, 23, 102-112.

    Qiu, B., R. Scott, and S. Chen, 2008: Length scales of eddy generation and nonlinear evolution of the seasonally-modulated South Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1515-1528.

    Qiu, B., N. Schneider, and S. Chen, 2007: Coupled decadal variability in the North Pacific: An observationally-constrained idealized model. J. Climate, 20, 3602-3620.

    Chen, S., B. Qiu, and P. Hacker, 2007: Profiling float measurements of the recirculation gyre south of the Kuroshio Extension in May to November 2004. J. Geophys. Res., 112, doi:10.1029/2006JC004005.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and P. Hacker, 2007: Effect of mesoscale eddies on Subtropical Mode Water variability from the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS). J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 982-1000.

    Noh, Y., B.Y. Yim, S.H. You, J.H. Yoon, and B. Qiu, 2007: Seasonal variation of eddy kinetic energy of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent simulated by an eddy-resolving OGCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, doi:10.1029/2006GL029130.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2006: Decadal variability in the large-scale sea surface height field of the South Pacific Ocean: Observations and causes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 1751-1762.

    Chen, S., and B. Qiu, 2006: Annual variations in sea surface height northeast of the Hawaiian Islands. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, doi:10.1029/2006GL027005.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2006: Decadal variability in the formation of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water: Oceanic versus atmospheric control. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 1365-1380.

    Qiu, B., P. Hacker, S. Chen, K.A. Donohue, D.R. Watts, H. Mitsudera, N.G. Hogg and S.R. Jayne, 2006: Observations of the Subtropical Mode Water evolution from the Kuroshio Extension System Study. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 457-473.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2005: Variability of the Kuroshio Extension jet, recirculation gyre and mesoscale eddies on decadal timescales. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 2090-2103.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2005: Eddy-induced heat transport in the subtropical North Pacific from Argo, TMI and altimetry measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 458-473.

  • 2000 - 2004

    Firing, Y.I., M.A. Merrifield, T.A. Schroeder, and B. Qiu, 2004: Interdecadal sea level fluctuations at Hawaii. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 2514-2524.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and P. Hacker, 2004: Synoptic-scale air-sea flux forcing in the western North Pacific: Observations and their impact on SST and the mixed layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 2148-2159.

    Chen, S., and B. Qiu, 2004: Seasonal variability of the South Equatorial Countercurrent. J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2003JC002243.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2004: Seasonal modulations in the eddy field of the South Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1515-1527.

    Endo, T., H. Mitsudera, S. Xie, and B. Qiu, 2004: Thermohaline structure in the subarctic North Pacific simulated in a general circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 360-371.

    Qiu, B., 2003: Kuroshio Extension variability and forcing of the Pacific decadal oscillations: Responses and potential feedback. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 2465-2482.

    Durland, T.S., and B. Qiu, 2003: Transmission of subinertial Kelvin waves through a strait. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 1337-1350.

    Scott, R.B., and B. Qiu, 2003: Predictability of SST in a stochastic climate model and its application to the Kuroshio Extension region. J. Climate, 16, 312-322.

    Qiu, B., and T. Durland, 2002: Interaction between an island and the ventilated thermocline: Implications for the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3408-3426.

    Qiu, B., 2002: Large-scale variability in the midlatitude subtropical and subpolar North Pacific Ocean: Observations and causes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 353-375.

    Fu, L.-L., and B. Qiu, 2002: Low-frequency variability of the North Pacific Ocean: the roles of boundary-driven and wind-driven baroclinic Rossby waves. J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JC001131.

    Qiu, B., 2002: The Kuroshio Extension system: Its large-scale variability and role in the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction. J. Oceanogr., 58, 57-75.

    Qiu, B., 2001: Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. In Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Academic Press, pp. 1413-1425.

    Fu, L.-L., B. Cheng, and B. Qiu, 2001: 25-day period large-scale oscillations in the Argentine Basin revealed by the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 506-517.

    Qu, T., H. Mitsudera, and B. Qiu, 2001: A climatological view of the Kuroshio/Oyashio system east of Japan. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2572-2589.

    Qiu, B., and W. Miao, 2000: Kuroshio path variations south of Japan: Bimodality as a self-sustained internal oscillation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2124-2137.

    Qiu, B., 2000: Interannual variability of the Kuroshio Extension system and its impact on the wintertime SST field. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 1486-1502.

  • 1995 - 1999

    Qiu, B., 1999: Seasonal eddy field modulation of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent: TOPEX/POSEIDON observations and theory. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2471-2486.

    Firing, E., B. Qiu, and W. Miao, 1999: Time-dependent island rule and its application to the time-varying North Hawaiian Ridge Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2671-2688.

    Qiu, B., M. Mao, and Y. Kashino, 1999: Intraseasonal variability in the Indo-Pacific Throughflow and the regions surrounding the Indonesian Seas. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 1599-1618.

    Huang, R.X. and B. Qiu, 1998: The structure of the wind-driven circulation in the subtropical South Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 1173-1186.

    Qiu, B., and F.F. Jin, 1997: Antarctic circumpolar waves: An indication of ocean-atmosphere coupling in the extratropics. Geophys. Res. Let., 24, 2585-2588.

    Qiu, B., W. Miao, and P. Muller, 1997: Propagation and decay of forced and free baroclinic Rossby waves in off-equatorial oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 2405-2417.

    Qiu, B., D. Koh, C. Lumpkin, and P. Flament, 1997: Existence and formation mechanism of the North Hawaiian Ridge Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 431-444.

    Ishikawa, Y., T. Awaji, K. Akitomo, and B. Qiu, 1996: Successive correction of the mean sea surface height by the simultaneous assimilation of drifting buoy and altimetric data. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 2381-2397.

    Qiu, B. and R. Lukas, 1996: Seasonal and interannual variability of the North Equatorial Current, the Mindanao Current and the Kuroshio along the Pacific western boundary. J. Geophys. Res., 101 12,315-12,330.

    Kelly, K.A., M.J. Caruso, S. Singh, and B. Qiu, 1996: Observations of atmosphere-ocean coupling in midlatitude western boundary currents. J. Geophys. Res., 101 6295-6312.

    Qiu, B.and R.X. Huang, 1995: Ventilation of the North Atlantic and North Pacific: Subduction vs. obduction. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 2374-2390.

    Qiu, B., 1995: Variability and energetics of the Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation gyre from the first two-year TOPEX data. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 1827-1842.

    Kelly, K.A. and B. Qiu, 1995: Heat flux estimates for the North Atlantic. Part II: The upper ocean heat balance. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 2361-2373.

    Kelly, K.A. and B. Qiu, 1995: Heat flux estimates for the North Atlantic. Part I: Assimilation of satellite data into a mixed layer model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 2344-2360.

    Qiu, B., 1995: Why is the North Pacific Intermediate Water confined on density surfaces around sigma_theta = 26.8?. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 168-180.

  • 1987 - 1994

    Qiu, B., 1994: Determining the mean Gulf Stream and its recirculations through combining hydrographic and altimetric data. J. Geophys. Res., 99 951-962.

    Huang, R.X. and B. Qiu, 1994: Three-dimensional structure of the wind-driven circulation in the subtropical North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 1608-1622.

    Qiu, B. and K.A. Kelly, 1993: Upper ocean heat balance in the Kuroshio Extension region. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 2027-2041.

    Qiu, B., 1992: Recirculation and seasonal change of the Kuroshio from altimetry observations. J. Geophys. Res., 97 17,801-17,811.

    Qiu, B. and T.M. Joyce, 1992: Interannual variability in the mid- and low-latitude western North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22 1062-1079.

    Qiu, B., K.A. Kelly, and T.M. Joyce, 1991: Mean flow and variability of the Kuroshio Extension from the Geosat altimetry data. J. Geophys. Res., 96 18,491-18,507.

    Qiu, B., 1990: Low-frequency shelf/slope responses induced by localized offshore forcings. J. Geophys. Res., 95 9447-9459.

    Qiu, B., T. Toda, and N. Imasato, 1990: On Kuroshio front fluctuations in the East China Sea using satellite and in-situ observational data. J. Geophys. Res., 95 18,191-18,204.

    Qiu, B. and N. Imasato, 1990: A numerical study on the formation of the Kuroshio counter current and the Kuroshio branch current in the East China Sea. Continental Shelf Res., 10 165-184.

    Qiu, B., N. Imasato, and T. Awaji, 1988: Baroclinic instability of buoyancy-driven coastal density currents. J. Geophys. Res., 93 5037-5050.

    Imasato, N., and B. Qiu, 1987: An event in water exchange between continental shelf and the Kuroshio off southern Japan -- Lagrangian tracking of a low-salinity water mass. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17 953-968.

  • Last changed on February 8 2014