CURRICULUM VITAE of Bo Qiu




Bo Qiu
Professor of Oceanography
Department of Oceanography
School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology
University of Hawaii at Manoa
1000 Pope Road
Honolulu, HI 96822

Office: (808) 956-4098
Fax: (808) 956-9225
E-mail: bo@soest.hawaii.edu


Google Scholar profile
BoQiu
DEGREES
  • Ph.D. 1990, Physical Oceanography, Kyoto University
  • M.Sc. 1986, Physical Oceanography, Kyoto University
  • B.Sc. 1984, Geophysics, Kyoto University

  • PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT
  • Professor, Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, 2003-present.
  • Associate Professor, Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, 1998-2003.
  • Assistant Professor, Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, 1993-1998.
  • Assistant Scientist, Dept of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1992-1993.
  • Postdoc Investigator, Dept of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1990-1992.

  • CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS
  • Decadal Upper Ocean Variability in the North Pacific: Mechanisms, Impact and Prediction (NSF)
  • Origins of the Kuroshio and Mindanao Currents (ONR)
  • Elucidating Multi-Scale Midlatitude Ocean Dynamics using Satellite Altimetry and Numerical Modeling Data (NASA)
  • Exploration of New Upper Ocean Circulation Dynamics through Synergy of the SWOT Satellite Mission and Ocean General Circulation Model (NASA)
  • COURSE SYLLABUS

    OCN662: Marine Hydrodynamics

    SYNERGETIC ACTIVITIES
  • Panelist, U.S. Argo Implementation Panel, 2004-present
  • Member, NASA's Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) Science Definition Team, 2013-present
  • Member, NASA's Ocean Surface Topography Science Team (OSTST), 2013-present
  • Member, Pacific Asian Marginal Seas (PAMS) Science Steering Committee, 2013-present
  • Member, International CLIVAR NPOCE Program Science Steering Committee, 2010-present
  • Councilor (Hyou-gi-in), The Oceanographic Society of Japan, 1997-present
  • Member, JAMSTEC Research Institute for Global Change (RIGC) Advisory Committee, 2011-2014
  • Panelist, International CLIVAR Pacific Panel, 2005-2012
  • Contributing Author, The IPCC 5th Assessment Report: "The Physical Science Basis", 2011-2012
  • Panelist, International CLIVAR Asian-Australian Monsoon Panel, 2008-2010
  • Co-chair, US-CLIVAR Western Boundary Current Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Working Group, 2007-2009
  • Coordinator, IOC/WESTPAC Ocean Dynamics and Climate Programme, 2002-2008
  • Contributing Author, The IPCC 4th Assessment Report: The Physical Science Basis, 2005/06
  • Panelist, U.S. CLIVAR Pacific Implementation Panel, 1999-2003
  • Recipient, New Investigators Award from NASA's Mission To Planet Earth (MTPE) Program, 1996
  • Recipient, The Okada Prize from the Oceanographic Society of Japan, 1993
  • REFEREED PUBLICATIONS

  • 2014

    Zhang, Z., W. Wang, and B. Qiu, 2014: Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies. Science, , DOI: 10.1126/science.1252418.

    Jing, Z., L. Wu, and B. Qiu, 2014: Enhanced 2-h~8-day oscillations associated with Tropical Instability Waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 1908-1918.

    Lien, R.-C., B. Ma, Y.-H. Cheng, C.-R. Ho, B. Qiu, C.M. Lee, and M.-H. Chang, 2014: Modulation of Kuroshio transport by mesoscale eddies at the Luzon Strait entrance. J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi:10.1002/2013JC009548.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, N. Schneider, and B. Taguchi, 2014: A coupled decadal prediction of the dynamic state of the Kuroshio Extension system. J. Climate, 27, 1751-1764.

    Kilpatrick, T., N. Schneider, and B. Qiu, 2014: Boundary layer convergence induced by strong winds across a midlatitude SST front. J. Climate, 27, 1698-1718.

    Chen, Z., L. Wu, B. Qiu, S. Sun, and F. Jia, 2014: Seasonal variation of the South Equatorial Current bifurcation off Madagascar. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 618-631.

  • 2013

    Kida, S., and B. Qiu, 2013: An exchange flow between the Okhotsk Sea and the North Pacific driven by the East Kamchatka Current. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6747-6758, doi:10.1002/2013JC009464.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and H. Sasaki, 2013: Generation of the North Equatorial Undercurrent jets by triad baroclinic Rossby wave interactions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 2682-2698.

    Zhuang, W., B. Qiu, and Y. Du, 2013: Low-frequency western Pacific Ocean sea level and circulation changes due to the connectivity of the Philippine archipelago. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6759-6773, doi:10.1002/2013JC009376.

    Imawaki, S., A.S. Bower, L. Beal, and B. Qiu, 2013: Western Boundary Currents. In Ocean Circulation and Climate - A 21st Century Perspective, 2nd Edition, G. Siedler, S.M. Griffies, W.J. Gould and J. Church (eds.); Academic Press, pp.305-338.

    Katsura, S., E. Oka, B. Qiu, and N. Schneider, 2013: Formation and subduction of North Pacific Tropical Water and their interannual variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 2400-2415.

    Hsin, Y.-C., B. Qiu, T.-L. Chiang, C.-R. Wu, 2013: Seasonal to interannual variations in the intensity and central position of the surface Kuroshio east of Taiwan. J. Geophys. Res., 118, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20323.

    Qiu, B., D.L. Rudnick, S. Chen, and Y. Kashino, 2013: Quasi-stationary North Equatorial Undercurrent jets across the tropical North Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi:10.1002/grl.50394.

    Sun, S., L. Wu and B. Qiu, 2013: Response of the inertial recirculation to intensified stratification in a two-layer quasigeostrophic ocean circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 1254-1269.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2013: Concurrent decadal mesoscale eddy modulations in the western North Pacific subtropical gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 344-358.

    Cronin, M.F., N.A. Bond, J.T. Farrar, H. Ichikawa, S.R. Jayne, Y. Kawai, M. Konda, B. Qiu, L. Rainville, H. Tomita, 2013: Formation and erosion of the seasonal thermocline in the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre. Deep-Sea Res. II, 85, 62-74.

    Yim, B.-Y., Y. Noh, S.-W. Yeh, J.-S. Kug, H.-S. Min, and B. Qiu, 2013: Ocean mixed layer processes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in coupled general circulation models. Clim. Dyn., 41, 1407-1417, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1630-7.

  • 2012

    Hsin, Y.-C., and B. Qiu, 2012: The impact of Eastern-Pacific versus Central-Pacific El Ninos on the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C11017, doi:10.1029/2012JC008362.

    Chang, C.-H., S.-P. Xie, N. Schneider, B. Qiu, J. Small, W. Zhuang, B. Taguchi, H. Sasaki, and X. Lin, 2012: East Pacific ocean eddies and their relationship to subseasonal variability in Central American wind jets. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C10001, doi:10.1029/2011JC007315.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and G.S. Carter, 2012: Time-varying parametric subharmonic instability from repeat CTD surveys in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C09012, doi:10.1029/2012JC007882.

    Hsin, Y.-C., and B. Qiu, 2012: Seasonal fluctuations of the surface North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) across the Pacific basin. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C06001, doi:10.1029/2011JC007794.

    Oka, E., B. Qiu, S. Kouketsu, K. Uehara, and T. Suga, 2012: Decadal seesaw of the Central and Subtropical Mode Water formation associated with the Kuroshio Extension variability. J. Oceanogr., 68, 355-360.

    Wu, L., W. Cai, L. Zhang, H. Nakamura, A. Timmermann, T. Joyce, M.J. McPhaden, M. Alexander, B. Qiu, M. Visbeck, and P. Chang, 2012: Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents. Nature Clim. Change, 2, DOI:10.1038/NCLIMATE1353.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2012: Multi-decadal sea level and gyre circulation variability in the northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 193-206.

    Oka, E., and B. Qiu, 2012: Progress of North Pacific mode water research in the past decade. J. Oceanogr., 68, 5-20.

  • 2011

    Yoshida, S., B. Qiu, and P. Hacker, 2011: Low-frequency eddy modulations in the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent: Observations and connection to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C12009, doi:10.1029/2011JC007286.

    Ganachaud, A., A. Sen Gupta, J. Orr, S. Wijffels, K. Ridgway, M. Hemer, C. Maes, C. Steinberg, A. Tribollet, B. Qiu, and J. Kruger, 2011: Observed and expected changes to the tropical Pacific Ocean. In: Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change (J.D. Bell, J.E. Johnson and A.J. Hobday eds.). Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia. pp. 101-188.

    Jia, F., L. Wu, and B. Qiu, 2011: Seasonal modulation of eddy kinetic energy and its formation mechanism in the southeast Indian Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 657-665.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2011: Effect of decadal Kuroshio Extension jet and eddy variability on the modification of North Pacific Intermediate Water. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 503-515.

    Qiu, B., and Y. Masumoto, 2011: Oceanic processes influencing SST in regions related to the Asian-Australian monsoon system. In "The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast (2nd Ed.)", edited by C.-P. Chang et al., World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 525-534.

    Jia, F., L. Wu, J. Lan, and B. Qiu, 2011: Interannual modulation of eddy kinetic energy in the southeast Indian Ocean by Southern Annular Mode. J. Geophys. Res., 116, doi:10.1029/2010JC006699.

  • 2010

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2010: Interannual-to-decadal variability in the bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current off the Philippines. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 2525-2538.

    Lee, T., S. Hakkinen, K. Kelly, B. Qiu, H. Bonekamp, and E.J. Lindstrom, 2010: Satellite observations of ocean circulation changes associated with climate variability. Oceanography, 23(4), 70-81.

    Kelly, K.A., R.J. Small, R.M. Samelson, B. Qiu, T.M. Joyce, Y.-O. Kwon and M.F. Cronin, 2010: Western boundary currents and frontal air-sea interaction: Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. J. Climate, 23, 5644-5667.

    Kwon, Y.-O., M.A. Alenxader, N.A. Bond, C. Frankignoul, H. Nakamura, B. Qiu, and L. Thompson, 2010: Role of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio-Oyashio systems in large-scale atmosphere-ocean interaction: A review. J. Climate, 23, 3249-3281.

    Taguchi, B., B. Qiu, M. Nonaka, H. Sasaki, S.-P. Xie, and N. Schneider, 2010: Decadal variability of the Kuroshio Extension: mesoscale eddies and recirculations. Ocean Dyn., 60, 673-691.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2010: Eddy-mean flow interaction in the decadally-modulating Kuroshio Extension system. Deep-Sea Res. II, 57, 1098-1110.

    Yoshida, S., B. Qiu, and P. Hacker, 2010: Wind generated eddy characteristics in the lee of the island of Hawaii. J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/2009JC005417.

    Chen, S., and B. Qiu, 2010: Mesoscale eddies northeast of the Hawaiian archipelago from satellite altimeter observations. J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/2009JC005698.

    Yim, B.-Y., Y. Noh, B. Qiu, S.-H. You, and J.-H. Yoon, 2010: The vertical structure of eddy heat transport simulated by an eddy-resolving OGCM. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 340-353.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2010: Interannual variability of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent and its associated mesoscale eddy field. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 213-225.

  • 2005 - 2009

    Jayne, S., N. Hogg, S. Waterman, L. Rainville, K. Donahue, D. Watts, K. Tracey, J. McClean, M. Maltrud, B. Qiu, S. Chen, and P. Hacker, 2009: The Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation gyres. Deep-Sea Res., 56, 2088-2099.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and W.S. Kessler, 2009: Source of the 70-day mesoscale eddy variability in the Coral Sea and the North Fiji Basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 404-420.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, P. Hacker, N. Hogg, S. Jayne, and H. Sasaki, 2008: The Kuroshio Extension northern recirculation gyre: Profiling float measurements and forcing mechanism. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1764-1779.

    Scott, R.B., B.K. Arbic, C.L. Holland, A. Sen, and B. Qiu, 2008: Zonal versus meridional velocity variance in satellite observations and realistic and idealized ocean circulation models. Ocean Modelling, 23, 102-112.

    Qiu, B., R. Scott, and S. Chen, 2008: Length scales of eddy generation and nonlinear evolution of the seasonally-modulated South Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1515-1528.

    Qiu, B., N. Schneider, and S. Chen, 2007: Coupled decadal variability in the North Pacific: An observationally-constrained idealized model. J. Climate, 20, 3602-3620.

    Chen, S., B. Qiu, and P. Hacker, 2007: Profiling float measurements of the recirculation gyre south of the Kuroshio Extension in May to November 2004. J. Geophys. Res., 112, doi:10.1029/2006JC004005.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and P. Hacker, 2007: Effect of mesoscale eddies on Subtropical Mode Water variability from the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS). J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 982-1000.

    Noh, Y., B.Y. Yim, S.H. You, J.H. Yoon, and B. Qiu, 2007: Seasonal variation of eddy kinetic energy of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent simulated by an eddy-resolving OGCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, doi:10.1029/2006GL029130.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2006: Decadal variability in the large-scale sea surface height field of the South Pacific Ocean: Observations and causes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 1751-1762.

    Chen, S., and B. Qiu, 2006: Annual variations in sea surface height northeast of the Hawaiian Islands. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, doi:10.1029/2006GL027005.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2006: Decadal variability in the formation of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water: Oceanic versus atmospheric control. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 1365-1380.

    Qiu, B., P. Hacker, S. Chen, K.A. Donohue, D.R. Watts, H. Mitsudera, N.G. Hogg and S.R. Jayne, 2006: Observations of the Subtropical Mode Water evolution from the Kuroshio Extension System Study. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 457-473.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2005: Variability of the Kuroshio Extension jet, recirculation gyre and mesoscale eddies on decadal timescales. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 2090-2103.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2005: Eddy-induced heat transport in the subtropical North Pacific from Argo, TMI and altimetry measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 458-473.

  • 2000 - 2004

    Firing, Y.I., M.A. Merrifield, T.A. Schroeder, and B. Qiu, 2004: Interdecadal sea level fluctuations at Hawaii. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 2514-2524.

    Qiu, B., S. Chen, and P. Hacker, 2004: Synoptic-scale air-sea flux forcing in the western North Pacific: Observations and their impact on SST and the mixed layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 2148-2159.

    Chen, S., and B. Qiu, 2004: Seasonal variability of the South Equatorial Countercurrent. J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2003JC002243.

    Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2004: Seasonal modulations in the eddy field of the South Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1515-1527.

    Endo, T., H. Mitsudera, S. Xie, and B. Qiu, 2004: Thermohaline structure in the subarctic North Pacific simulated in a general circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 360-371.

    Qiu, B., 2003: Kuroshio Extension variability and forcing of the Pacific decadal oscillations: Responses and potential feedback. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 2465-2482.

    Durland, T.S., and B. Qiu, 2003: Transmission of subinertial Kelvin waves through a strait. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 1337-1350.

    Scott, R.B., and B. Qiu, 2003: Predictability of SST in a stochastic climate model and its application to the Kuroshio Extension region. J. Climate, 16, 312-322.

    Qiu, B., and T. Durland, 2002: Interaction between an island and the ventilated thermocline: Implications for the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3408-3426.

    Qiu, B., 2002: Large-scale variability in the midlatitude subtropical and subpolar North Pacific Ocean: Observations and causes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 353-375.

    Fu, L.-L., and B. Qiu, 2002: Low-frequency variability of the North Pacific Ocean: the roles of boundary-driven and wind-driven baroclinic Rossby waves. J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JC001131.

    Qiu, B., 2002: The Kuroshio Extension system: Its large-scale variability and role in the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction. J. Oceanogr., 58, 57-75.

    Qiu, B., 2001: Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. In Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Academic Press, pp. 1413-1425.

    Fu, L.-L., B. Cheng, and B. Qiu, 2001: 25-day period large-scale oscillations in the Argentine Basin revealed by the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 506-517.

    Qu, T., H. Mitsudera, and B. Qiu, 2001: A climatological view of the Kuroshio/Oyashio system east of Japan. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2572-2589.

    Qiu, B., and W. Miao, 2000: Kuroshio path variations south of Japan: Bimodality as a self-sustained internal oscillation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2124-2137.

    Qiu, B., 2000: Interannual variability of the Kuroshio Extension system and its impact on the wintertime SST field. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 1486-1502.

  • 1995 - 1999

    Qiu, B., 1999: Seasonal eddy field modulation of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent: TOPEX/POSEIDON observations and theory. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2471-2468.

    Firing, E., B. Qiu, and W. Miao, 1999: Time-dependent island rule and its application to the time-varying North Hawaiian Ridge Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2671-2688.

    Qiu, B., M. Mao, and Y. Kashino, 1999: Intraseasonal variability in the Indo-Pacific Throughflow and the regions surrounding the Indonesian Seas. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 1599-1618.

    Huang, R.X. and B. Qiu, 1998: The structure of the wind-driven circulation in the subtropical South Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 1173-1186.

    Qiu, B., and F.F. Jin, 1997: Antarctic circumpolar waves: An indication of ocean-atmosphere coupling in the extratropics. Geophys. Res. Let., 24, 2585-2588.

    Qiu, B., W. Miao, and P. Muller, 1997: Propagation and decay of forced and free baroclinic Rossby waves in off-equatorial oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 2405-2417.

    Qiu, B., D. Koh, C. Lumpkin, and P. Flament, 1997: Existence and formation mechanism of the North Hawaiian Ridge Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 431-444.

    Ishikawa, Y., T. Awaji, K. Akitomo, and B. Qiu, 1996: Successive correction of the mean sea surface height by the simultaneous assimilation of drifting buoy and altimetric data. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 2381-2397.

    Qiu, B. and R. Lukas, 1996: Seasonal and interannual variability of the North Equatorial Current, the Mindanao Current and the Kuroshio along the Pacific western boundary. J. Geophys. Res., 101 12,315-12,330.

    Kelly, K.A., M.J. Caruso, S. Singh, and B. Qiu, 1996: Observations of atmosphere-ocean coupling in midlatitude western boundary currents. J. Geophys. Res., 101 6295-6312.

    Qiu, B.and R.X. Huang, 1995: Ventilation of the North Atlantic and North Pacific: Subduction vs. obduction. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 2374-2390.

    Qiu, B., 1995: Variability and energetics of the Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation gyre from the first two-year TOPEX data. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 1827-1842.

    Kelly, K.A. and B. Qiu, 1995: Heat flux estimates for the North Atlantic. Part II: The upper ocean heat balance. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 2361-2373.

    Kelly, K.A. and B. Qiu, 1995: Heat flux estimates for the North Atlantic. Part I: Assimilation of satellite data into a mixed layer model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 2344-2360.

    Qiu, B., 1995: Why is the North Pacific Intermediate Water confined on density surfaces around sigma_theta = 26.8?. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 168-180.

  • 1987 - 1994

    Qiu, B., 1994: Determining the mean Gulf Stream and its recirculations through combining hydrographic and altimetric data. J. Geophys. Res., 99 951-962.

    Huang, R.X. and B. Qiu, 1994: Three-dimensional structure of the wind-driven circulation in the subtropical North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 1608-1622.

    Qiu, B. and K.A. Kelly, 1993: Upper ocean heat balance in the Kuroshio Extension region. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 2027-2041.

    Qiu, B., 1992: Recirculation and seasonal change of the Kuroshio from altimetry observations. J. Geophys. Res., 97 17,801-17,811.

    Qiu, B. and T.M. Joyce, 1992: Interannual variability in the mid- and low-latitude western North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22 1062-1079.

    Qiu, B., K.A. Kelly, and T.M. Joyce, 1991: Mean flow and variability of the Kuroshio Extension from the Geosat altimetry data. J. Geophys. Res., 96 18,491-18,507.

    Qiu, B., 1990: Low-frequency shelf/slope responses induced by localized offshore forcings. J. Geophys. Res., 95 9447-9459.

    Qiu, B., T. Toda, and N. Imasato, 1990: On Kuroshio front fluctuations in the East China Sea using satellite and in-situ observational data. J. Geophys. Res., 95 18,191-18,204.

    Qiu, B. and N. Imasato, 1990: A numerical study on the formation of the Kuroshio counter current and the Kuroshio branch current in the East China Sea. Continental Shelf Res., 10 165-184.

    Qiu, B., N. Imasato, and T. Awaji, 1988: Baroclinic instability of buoyancy-driven coastal density currents. J. Geophys. Res., 93 5037-5050.

    Imasato, N., and B. Qiu, 1987: An event in water exchange between continental shelf and the Kuroshio off southern Japan -- Lagrangian tracking of a low-salinity water mass. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17 953-968.


  • Last changed on February 8 2014