Dr. Richard E. Zeebe

Department of Oceanography
University of Hawaii at Manoa



Zeebe, R. E., A. Ridgwell, and J. C. Zachos. Anthropogenic carbon release rate unprecedented during the past 66 million years. Nature Geoscience, 9, 325-329, doi:10.1038/NGEO2681, 2016. PDF Supplement

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Penman, D.E., Turner, S.K., Sexton, P.F., Norris, R.D., Dickson, A.J., Boulila, S., Ridgwell, A., Zeebe, R.E., Zachos, J.C., Cameron, A. and Westerhold, T., An abyssal carbonate compensation depth overshoot in the aftermath of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Nature Geoscience, 9, 575-580, doi:10.1038/NGEO2757, 2016. PDF

Komar, N., and Zeebe, R. E. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian, Paleoceanogr., 31, 115-130, doi:10.1002/2015PA002834, 2016. PDF

Bauer, K. W., Zeebe, R. E. and Wortmann, U.G. Quantifying the volcanic emissions which triggered Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a and their effect on ocean acidification. Sedimentology, doi:10.1111/sed.12335, 2016.

Lunt, D. J., Huber, M., Baatsen, M. L. J., Caballero, R., DeConto, R., Donnadieu, Y., Evans, D., Feng, R., Foster, G., Gasson, E., von der Heydt, A. S., Hollis, C. J., Kirtland Turner, S., Korty, R. L., Kozdon, R., Krishnan, S., Ladant, J.-B., Langebroek, P., Lear, C. H., LeGrande, A. N., Littler, K., Markwick, P., Otto-Bliesner, B., Pearson, P., Poulsen, C., Salzmann, U., Shields, C., Snell, K., Starz, M., Super, J., Tabour, C., Tierney, J., Tourte, G. J. L., Upchurch, G. R., Wade, B., Wing, S. L., Winguth, A. M. E., Wright, N., Zachos, J. C., and Zeebe, R. E. DeepMIP: experimental design for model simulations of the EECO, PETM, and pre-PETM, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., doi:10.5194/gmd-2016-127, in review, 2016.


Zeebe, R. E. Highly stable evolution of Earth's future orbit despite chaotic behavior of the Solar System, The Astrophysical Journal, 811:9, 2015. Erratum PDF

Zeebe, R. E. Dynamic stability of the Solar System: Statistically inconclusive results from ensemble integrations. The Astrophysical Journal, 798(8), 2015. PDF

Uchikawa, J., Penman, D. E., Zachos, J. C., and Zeebe, R. E. Experimental evidence for kinetic effects on B/Ca in synthetic calcite: Implications for potential B(OH)4- and B(OH)3 incorporation, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 150, 171-191, 2015. PDF


Zeebe, R. E. Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 139, 540-552, 2014. PDF

Zeebe, R. E., G. R. Dickens, A. Ridgwell, A. Sluijs, and E. Thomas. Onset of carbon isotope excursion at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum took millennia, not 13 years. (Comment) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 111, doi/10.1073/pnas.1321177111, 2014. PDF

MORE COMMENTS ON THE SAME PAPER BY: Pearson and Nicholas (PNAS, 2014), Stassen et al. (PNAS, 2104)

Penman, D. E., B. Hoenisch, Zeebe, R. E., E. Thomas, and J. C. Zachos. Rapid and sustained surface ocean acidification during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Paleoceanogr., 29, 10.1002/2014PA002621, 2014. PDF

Van Der Meer, D. G., Zeebe, R. E., van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., Sluijs, A., Spakman, W., and Torsvik, T. H. Plate tectonic controls on atmospheric CO2 levels since the Triassic. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 111 (12) 4380-4385, 2014. doi:10.1073/pnas.1315657111. PDF Supporting Information

Hesse, T., D. Wolf-Gladrow, G. Lohmann, J. Bijma, A. Mackensen, and Zeebe, R. E. Modelling d13C in benthic foraminifera: Insights from model sensitivity experiments. Mar. Micropaleontol., 112, 50-61. doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2014.08.001, 2014. PDF


Zeebe, R. E. Time-dependent climate sensitivity and the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 110, doi:10.1073/pnas.1222843110, 2013. PDF Supporting Information

Zeebe, R. E. What caused the long duration of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum? Paleoceanogr., 28, doi:0.1002/palo.20039, 2013. PDF

Zeebe, R. E., and J. C. Zachos. Long-term legacy of massive carbon input to the Earth system: Anthropocene vs. Eocene. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 2013. PDF

Komar, N., Zeebe, R. E., and G. R. Dickens. Understanding long-term carbon cycle trends: The late Paleocene through the early Eocene. Paleoceanogr., 28, doi:10.1002/palo.20060, 2013. PDF

Sluijs, A., Zeebe, R. E., P. K. Bijl, and S. M. Bohaty. A middle Eocene carbon cycle conundrum. Nature Geoscience, 6, doi: 10.1038/ngeo1807. PDF

Uchikawa, J., and Zeebe, R. E. No discernible effect of Mg2+ ions on the equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation in the CO2-H2O system, Chem. Geol., 2013. PDF

Paquay, F. and Zeebe, R. E. Assessing possible consequences of ocean liming on ocean pH, atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated costs. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control, 17, 183-188. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.05.005. PDF


Zeebe, R. E. History of seawater carbonate chemistry, atmospheric CO2, and ocean acidification. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 40, doi:10.1146/annurev-earth-042711-105521, 2012. PDF

Zeebe, R. E. LOSCAR: Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir Model v2.0.4. Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1-18, doi:10.5194/gmd-5-1-2012, 2012. PDF

Uchikawa, J., and Zeebe, R. E. The effect of carbonic anhydrase on the kinetics and equilibrium of the oxygen isotope exchange in the CO2-H2O system: Implications for d18O vital effects in biogenic carbonates, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 95,15-34. PDF

Ilyina, T. and Zeebe, R. E. Detection and projection of carbonate dissolution in the water column and deep-sea sediments due to ocean acidification. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, doi:10.1029/2012GL051272, 2012. PDF

Sluijs, A., Zachos, J. C., and Zeebe, R. E. Constraints on hyperthermals (Comment on Cui et al., Nature Geosci., 4, 2011). Nature Geoscience, 5, 231, 2012. PDF

Hoenisch, B., A. Ridgwell, D.N. Schmidt, E. Thomas, S.J. Gibbs, A. Sluijs, Zeebe, R. E., L. Kump, R.C. Martindale, S.E. Greene, W. Kiessling, J. Ries, J. Zachos, D.L. Royer, S. Barker, T.M. Marchitto Jr., R. Moyer, C. Pelejero, P. Ziveri, G.L. Foster, and B. Williams. The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification, Science, 335, 1058-1063, doi: 10.1126/science.1208277, 2012. PDF

Rohling, E. J., A. Sluijs, H.A. Dijkstra, P. Koehler, R.S.W. van de Wal, A.S. von der Heydt, D. Beerling, A. Berger, P.K. Bijl, M. Crucifix, R. deConto, S.S. Drijfhout, A. Fedorov, G. Foster, A. Ganopolski, J. Hansen, B. Hoenisch, H. Hooghiemstra, M. Huber, P. Huybers, R. Knutti, D.W. Lea, L.J. Lourens, D. Lunt, V. Masson-Demotte, M. Medina-Elizalde, B. Otto-Bliesner, M. Pagani, H. Paelike, H. Renssen, D.L. Royer, M. Siddall, P. Valdes, J.C. Zachos, Zeebe, R. E. Making sense of palaeoclimate sensitivity, Nature, 491, doi:10.1038/nature11574, 2012.

Paelike H, Lyle MW, Nishi H, Raffi I, Ridgwell A, Gamage K, Klaus A, Acton G, Anderson L, Backman J, Baldauf J, Beltran C, Bohaty SM, Bown P, Busch W, Channell JE, Chun CO, Delaney M, Dewangan P, Dunkley Jones T, Edgar KM, Evans H, Fitch P, Foster GL, Gussone N, Hasegawa H, Hathorne EC, Hayashi H, Herrle JO, Holbourn A, Hovan S, Hyeong K, Iijima K, Ito T, Kamikuri S, Kimoto K, Kuroda J, Leon-Rodriguez L, Malinverno A, Moore TC Jr, Murphy BH, Murphy DP, Nakamura H, Ogane K, Ohneiser C, Richter C, Robinson R, Rohling EJ, Romero O, Sawada K, Scher H, Schneider L, Sluijs A, Takata H, Tian J, Tsujimoto A, Wade BS, Westerhold T, Wilkens R, Williams T, Wilson PA, Yamamoto Y, Yamamoto S, Yamazaki T, Zeebe, R. E. A Cenozoic record of the equatorial Pacific carbonate compensation depth. Nature, 488. 609-14. doi: 10.1038/nature11360, 2012.


Zeebe, R. E. Where are you heading Earth? (Commentary) Nature Geoscience, 4, 416-417, 2011. PDF

Zeebe, R. E. and A. Ridgwell. Past changes of ocean carbonate chemistry, in Ocean Acidification, ed. J.-P. Gattuso and L. Hansson, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Komar, N. and Zeebe, R. E. Changes in oceanic calcium from enhanced weathering did not affect calcium-based proxies during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Paleoceanography, 2011. PDF

Zeebe, R. E. On the molecular diffusion coefficients of dissolved CO2, HCO3-, and CO32- and their dependence on isotopic mass. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2483-2498, 2011. PDF

Bartoli, G., B. Hoenisch, and Zeebe, R. E. Atmospheric CO2 decline during the Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations, Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/2010PA002055, 2011.


Zeebe, R. E. and T. M. Marchitto, Jr. Atmosphere and ocean chemistry. Nature Geoscience, News and Views, 3, 386-387, 2010. PDF

Uchikawa, J., and Zeebe, R. E. Examining possible effects of seawater pH decline on foraminiferal stable isotopes during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Paleoceanography, 25, PA2216, doi:10.1029/2009PA001864, 2010. PDF

Stuecker, M. F., and Zeebe, R. E. Ocean chemistry and atmospheric CO2 sensitivity to carbon perturbations throughout the Cenozoic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L03609, doi:10.1029/2009GL041436, 2010. PDF

Zeebe, R. E. A new value for the stable oxygen isotope fractionation between dissolved sulfate ion and water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 74, 818-828, 2010. PDF


Ilyina, T., R. E. Zeebe, and P. G. Brewer. Future ocean increasingly transparent to low-frequency sound owing to carbon dioxide emissions. Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/NGEO719, 2009. PDF

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Zeebe, R. E., Zachos, J. C., and G. R. Dickens. Carbon dioxide forcing alone insufficient to explain Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum warming. Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/NGEO578, 2009. PDF Supplement

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Zeebe, R. E.. Hydration in solution is critical for stable oxygen isotope fractionation between carbonate ion and water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73, 5283-5291, 2009. PDF

Schulz, K. G. , J. Barcelos e Ramos, R. E. Zeebe, and U. Riebesell. CO2 perturbation experiments: similarities and differences between dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity manipulations Biogeosciences, 6, 21452153, 2009. PDF

de Moel, H., G. M. Ganssen, F. J. C. Peeters, S. J. A. Jung, G. J. A. Brummer, D. Kroon, and Zeebe, R. E.. Planktic foraminiferal shell thinning in the Arabian Sea due to anthropogenic ocean acidification? Biogeosciences, 6, 19171925, 2009. PDF

Ilyina, T., Zeebe, R. E., E. Maier-Reimer, and C. Heinze, Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB1008, doi:10.1029/2008GB003278, 2009. PDF


Uchikawa, J., and Zeebe, R. E.. Influence of terrestrial weathering on ocean acidification and the next glacial inception. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L23608, doi:10.1029/2008GL035963, 2008. PDF

Zeebe, R. E., J. C. Zachos, K. Caldeira, and T. Tyrrell. Oceans: Carbon Emissions and Acidification. Science (Perspectives), 321, 51-52, doi:10.1126/science.1159124, 2008. PDF Supporting Online Material

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Zeebe, R. E., and K. Caldeira. Close mass balance of long-term carbon fluxes from ice-core CO2 and ocean chemistry records. Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo185, 2008. PDF

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Zachos, J. C., G. R. Dickens, and R. E. Zeebe.. An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature, 451, 279-283, doi:10.1038/nature06588, 2008.

Zeebe, R. E., J. Bijma, B. Hoenisch, A. Sanyal, H. J. Spero, and D. A. Wolf-Gladrow. Vital Effects and Beyond: A Modeling Perspective on Developing Paleoceanographic Proxy Relationships in Foraminifera, The Geological Society, London. Special Publications, 303 , 45-58. Biogeochemical Controls on Palaeoceanographic Proxies. Eds.: James, R., Austin, W. E. N., Clarke, L., Rickaby, R. E. M., 2008. PDF

Zeebe, R. E., and D. A. Wolf-Gladrow, Carbon dioxide, dissolved (ocean). Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments, Ed. V. Gornitz, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Earth Science Series, 2008. PDF

Wolf-Gladrow, D. A., and R. E. Zeebe. Isotope fractionation. Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments, Ed. V. Gornitz, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Earth Science Series, 2008. PDF


Zeebe, R. E.. Modeling CO2 chemistry, d13C, and oxidation of organic carbon and methane in sediment porewater: Implications for paleo-proxies in benthic foraminifera. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71(13), 3238-3256, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2007.05.004, 2007. PDF

Zeebe, R. E.. An expression for the overall oxygen isotope fractionation between the sum of dissolved inorganic carbon and water. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., doi:10.1029/2003GC001663, 2007. PDF. Supplementary numerical routines for MATLAB and EXCEL.

Zeebe, R. E., and J. C. Zachos. Reversed deep-sea carbonate ion basin-gradient during Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Paleoceanography, 22, PA3201, doi:10.1029/2006PA001395, 2007. PDF

Wolf-Gladrow, D. A., R. E. Zeebe., C. Klaas, A. Koertzinger, and A. G. Dickson, Total alkalinity: the explicit conservative expression and its application to biogeochemical processes. Marine Chemistry, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2007.01.006, 2007. PDF

Caldeira K., D. Archer, J. P. Barry, R. G. J. Bellerby, P. G. Brewer, L. Cao, A. G. Dickson, S. C. Doney, H. Elderfield, V. J. Fabry, R. A. Feely, J.-P. Gattuso, P. M. Haugan, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, A. K. Jain, J. A. Kleypas, C. Langdon, J. C. Orr, A. Ridgwell, C. L. Sabine, B. A. Seibel, Y. Shirayama, C. Turley, A. J. Watson, and R. E. Zeebe., Comment on "Modern-age buildup of CO2 and its effects on seawater acidity and salinity". Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L18608, doi:10.1029/2006GL027288, 2007. PDF


Schulz, K. G., and R. E. Zeebe. Pleistocene glacial terminations triggered by synchronous changes in Southern and Northern Hemisphere insolation: The insolation canon hypothesis. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006. PDF

Schulz, K. G., U. Riebesell, B. Rost, S. Thoms, and R. E. Zeebe, Determination of the rate constants for the carbon dioxide to bicarbonate inter-conversion in pH-buffered seawater systems, Mar. Chem., 100, 53-65, 2006. PDF

Zeebe, R. E., Marine carbonate chemistry, in The Encyclopedia of Earth. www.eoearth.org


Zeebe, R. E., Stable boron isotope fractionation between dissolved B(OH)3 and B(OH)4-. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69(11), 2753-2766, 2005. PDF

Zeebe, R. E., and D. Archer, Feasibility of ocean fertilization and its impact on future atmospheric CO2 levels. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L09703, doi:10.1029/2005GL022449, 2005. PDF

Ridgwell, A., and R. E. Zeebe. The role of the global carbonate cycle in the regulation and evolution of the Earth system. FRONTIERS ARTICLE, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 234, 299-315,2005. PDF

Koehler, P., H. Fischer, G. Munhoven, and R. E. Zeebe. Quantitative interpretation of atmospheric carbon records over the last glacial termination. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, (19), GB4020, doi:10.1029/2004GB002345, 2005. PDF


Tyrrell, T. and R. E. Zeebe. History of carbonate ion concentration over the last 100 million years. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68(17), 3521-3530, 2004. PDF


Zeebe, R. E, and P. Westbroek, A simple model for the CaCO3 saturation state of the ocean: The "Strangelove", the "Neritan", and the "Cretan" ocean. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4(12), 1104, doi:10.1029/2003GC000538, 2003. PDF

Zeebe, R. E, D. A. Wolf-Gladrow, J. Bijma, and B. Hoenisch, Vital effects in planktonic foraminifera do not compromise the use of d11B as a paleo-pH indicator: Evidence from modeling. Paleoceanography, 18(2), doi: 10.1029/2003PA000881, 2003. PDF

Hoenisch, B., J. Bijma, A. D. Russell, H. J. Spero, M. R. Palmer, R. E. Zeebe, and A. Eisenhauer, The influence of symbiont photosynthesis on the boron isotopic composition of foraminifera shells. Marine Micropaleontology, 49(1-2), doi: doi:10.1016/S0377-8398(03)00030-6, 2003. PDF


Zeebe, R. E. and A. Sanyal, Comparison of two potential strategies of planktonic foraminifera for house building: Mg2+ or H+ removal? Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 66(7), 1159-1169, 2002. PDF

Bijma, J., B. Hoenisch, and R. E. Zeebe, Impact of the ocean carbonate chemistry on living foraminiferal shell weight: Comment on ''Carbonate ion concentration in glacial-age deep waters of the Caribbean Sea'' by W. S. Broecker and E. Clark. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 3(11), 1064, doi: 10.1029/2002GC000388, 2002. PDF

Jansen, H., R. E. Zeebe, and D. A. Wolf-Gladrow, Modeling the dissolution of settling CaCO3 in the ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(2), 10.1029/2000GB001279, 2002. PDF


Zeebe, R. E. and Wolf-Gladrow. CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes. Elsevier Oceanography Series, 65, pp. 346, Amsterdam, 2001. BOOK

Zeebe, R. E., Seawater pH and Isotopic Paleotemperatures of Cretaceous Oceans. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 170(1-2) 49-57, 2001. PDF

Zeebe, R. E., A. Sanyal, J. D. Ortiz, and D. A. Wolf-Gladrow, A theoretical study of the kinetics of the boric acid - borate equilibrium in seawater. Mar. Chem., 73(2), 113-124, 2001. PDF

Zondervan, I., R. E. Zeebe, B. Rost, and U. Riebesell, Decreasing marine biogenic calcification: A negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15(2), 507-516, 2001. PDF

Riebesell, U., I. Zondervan, B. Rost, and R. E. Zeebe, Effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on phytoplankton communities and the biological carbon pump. Global Change News Letters, 47, 12-15, 2001. PDF


Riebesell, U., I. Zondervan, B. Rost, P. D. Tortell, R. E. Zeebe, and F. M. M. Morel, Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature, 407, 364-367, 2000.


Zeebe, R. E., An explanation of the effect of seawater carbonate concentration on foraminiferal oxygen isotopes.Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 2001-2007, 1999. PDF

Zeebe, R. E., D. A. Wolf-Gladrow, and H. Jansen, On the time required to establish chemical and isotopic equilibrium in the carbon dioxide system in sea water. Mar. Chem., 65, 135-153, 1999. PDF

Zeebe, R. E., J. Bijma, and D. A. Wolf-Gladrow, A diffusion-reaction model of carbon isotope fractionation in foraminifera. Mar. Chem., 64, 199-227, 1999. PDF

Wolf-Gladrow, D. A., J. Bijma, and R. E. Zeebe, Model simulation of the carbonate system in the microenvironment of symbiont bearing foraminifera. Mar. Chem., 64, 181-198, 1999. PDF


Zeebe, R. E., H. Eicken, D. H. Robinson, D. A. Wolf-Gladrow, and G. S. Dieckmann, Modeling the heating and melting of sea ice through light absorption by microalgae. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1163-1181, 1996. PDF

Dr. Richard E. Zeebe
Department of Oceanography
University of Hawaii at Manoa
1000 Pope Road
Marine Sciences Building 629
Honolulu, HI 96822