Class Schedule and Lecture Note Downloads:

GG711 - Deep Submarine Eruptions

A course that explores various aspects of volcanic activity in the deep ocean and its effect on the surrounding environment.
Fall 2011 - download the course announcement and/or syllabus
glowing lava bubble
hot pillow lava
NOTE: the lecture content is subject to slight shifts and changes (i.e., it will evolve during the semester). also, if you download files way in advance, check back the day before class to see if I've posted more recent versions

Instructor: Ken Rubin
Day, Time: Tu-Th, 10:30-11:45 AM

Place: POST 613
Fellow Seminarians.....

This class will consist of roughly once-a-week semi-informal lectures (usually tuesday) and once a week meetings (usually thursday) in which we will discuss 1 or 2 papers we read for that week. In some or all weeks we will condense this into one meeting per week, probably on tuesday, butdepending on various guest lecturers schedules as well. Expect to lead a discussion or two later in the semester. (Discussion leaders' names are given in Bold Text for each reading)

The schedule below is still somewhat under development for the end of the semester.
Take a look also at the Spring 2007 schedule to see the topics and papers we read the last time I ran this course.

Click on the Lecture number to obtain the lecture notes for that day
Lecture notes are protected by copyright

Week (lecture No.)


Discussion leader + topic

reading (see also full reference list at the bottom of this web page)

1 (1)

Jan 9, 11

Ken, General intro lecture

Soule et al., 2007; background: Tolstoy et al., 2006

2 (2)

Sep 6, 8

Ken, Ocean ridge volcanism.
Special Guest for thursday's paper discussion: Adam Soule, WHOI

Perfit and Chadwick, 1998 thru section 3 (download author provided reprint); background: Macdonald 2001

3 (3)

Sep 13, 15

Ken, Hydrothermal Processes
Special Guest presentation on thursday by: Bob Embley, NOAA-PMEL, "Submarine Volcanoes of the Mariana Arc: Interdisplinary Exploration and Research"

Embley et al. (2006)

4 (4)

Sep 20, 22

Ken, Eruption Geochronology

Rubin et al., 1994; Rubin et al., 2005; Background: Bowles et al., 2006

5 (5)

Sep 27

Ken, Multidisciplinary studies of the West mata volcano eruption; no seminar on thursday

Resing et al., 2011



special date/time - 4:30 PMdicussion and scheduling of papers you will lead

no reading this week - look at your paper options

7 (6)

Oct 11, 13

Ken, Submarine pyroclastic activity

Schipper et al., 2011; Background: Clague et al., 2009

8 (7)

Oct 18

Jonathan, near-spreading-center seamounts

Haase et al., 2009; Background: longish list sent around by email

8 (8)

Oct 20

Tina, hydrothermal response to eruptions

Butterfield et al., 1997; Background: Von Damm 2004

9 (9)

Oct 25

Alice, tentative: geology and petrology of individual eruption deposits

Sinton et al., 2002; Background: Auzende et al., 1996; Rubin et al., 2001

9 (10)

Oct 27

Sarah, reconstructing eruptions from sea floor lava morphology

Fundis et al., 2009; Background: Gregg and Fink, 1995

10 (11)

Nov 1

Mary, submarine Hawaiian volcanism; no class Nov. 3

Clague and Calvert, 2010; background: Smith et al., 2002; Clague et al., 2006

11 (12)

Nov 10

John Sinton, relationship of magma reservoirs and erupted magmas; no class Nov. 8

Bergmanis et al., 2007; background: Sinton et al., 2002 (please also read the part that earlier Alice had you skip)

12 (13)

Nov. 17

Fred Duennebier, Seismic detection; no class Nov. 15

Fox et al., 2001, Dziak & Fox, 1999; Norris & Johnson, 1969

13 (14)

Nov 22

Margo Edwards, remote mapping [this class is rescheduled for Mon Dec 12 at 10:30](thursday is thanksgiving)

Fornari et al., 1998; Edwards et al., 2011?

14 (15)

Nov 29, Dec 1

no class - independent reading

Rubin et al., 2012


Dec 6, 8

no class, agu week

16 (finals)

Dec 12

Mon., Margo makeup lecture

References for reading and background papers
  • Auzende, J-M., V. Ballu, R. Batiza, D. Bideau, J. L. Charlou, M. H. Cormier, Y. Fouquet, P. Geistdorfer, Y. Lagabrielle, J. Sinton and P. Spadea (1996) Recent tectonic, magmatic, and hydrothermal activity on the East Pacific Rise between 17 and 19 S: Submersible observations, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 17995-18010.
  • EC Bergmanis, J Sinton, KH Rubin (2007) Recent Eruptive History and Magma Reservoir Dynamics on the Southern East Pacific Rise at 17.5 S, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q12O06, doi:10.1029/2007GC001742
  • Bowles, J., et al. (2006), Paleointensity applications to timing and extent of eruptive activity, 9–10N East Pacific Rise, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 7, Q06006, doi:10.1029/2005GC001141.
  • Butterfield, D.A., I.R. Jonasson, G.J. Massoth, R.A. Feely, K.K. Roe, R.E. Embley, J.F. Holden, R.E. McDuff, M.D. Lilley, and J.R. Delaney (1997) Seafloor eruptions and evolution of hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 355, 369–386
  • Clague, D. A., Paduan, J. B. & Davis, A. S. Widespread strombolian eruptions of mid-ocean ridge basalt.(2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 180, 171-188.
  • Clague, D.A., J.B. Paduan, B.C. McIntosh, B.L. Cousens, A.S. Davis, J. R. Reynolds, 2006, A submarine perspective of the Honolulu Volcanics, Oahu, J. Vocanol. Geotherm. Res., 151, 279-307.
  • Clague, DA, Calvert, AT (2009) Postshield stage transitional volcanism on Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii, Bull. Volcanol. 71, 533–539, DOI 10.1007/s00445-008-0240-z
  • Dziak, RP and Fox, CG (1999) The January 1998 Earthquake Swarm at Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Hydroacoustic Evidence of Seafloor Volcanic Activity, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 26,3429-3432.
  • Edwards, M et al. (2011?) Methodologies for Surveying and Assessing Deep Water Munitions Disposal Sites
  • Embley et al., (2006) Long-Term Eruptive Activity at a Submarine Arc Volcano, Nature, 441, 494-497 doi:10.1038/nature04762
  • Fox, C.G., H. Matsumoto, T.-K.A. Lau (2001) Monitoring Pacific Ocean seismicity from an autonomous hydrophone array, J. Geophys Res, 106(B3), 4183-4206.
  • AT, Fundis, Soule SA, Fornari DJ, et al. (2010) Paving the seafloor: Volcanic emplacement processes during the 2005-2006 eruptions at the fast spreading East Pacific Rise, 9 degrees 50 ' N, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst.11 Article Number: Q08024.
  • Fornari, D.J., R.M. Haymon, M.R. Perfit, T.K.P. Gregg and M.H. Edwards, Axial summit caldera of the East Pacific Rise 9° to 10°N: Geological characteristics and evolution of the axial zone on fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 9827-9855, 1998.
  • Gregg, T. K. P., and J. H. Fink (1995) Quantification of of submarine lava flow morphology through analog experiments, Geology, 23, 73-76.
  • KM Haase, S Fretzdorff, R Mühe, D Garbe-Schönberg, P Stoffers (2009) A geochemical study of off-axis seamount lavas at the Valu Fa Ridge: Constraints on magma genesis and slab contributions in the southern Tonga subduction zone, Lithos 112, 137–148
  • Johnson, R.H.,and R.A. Norris, Significance of spectral banding in hydroacoustic signals from submarine volcanice eruptions: Myojin 1970; J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4461-4469, 1972.
  • Macdonald, Ken C. (2001). Mid-Ocean Ridge Tectonics, Volcanism and Geomorphology ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OCEAN SCIENCES (eds. J. Steele, S. Thorpe, K. Turekian), Academic Press, p. 1798-1813.
  • Perfit and Chadwick, 1998, Magmatism at mid-ocean ridges: constraints from volcanological and geochemical investigations, p. 59-115 in Faulting and Magmatism at Mid-Ocean Ridges Geophysical Monograph 106.
  • JA Resing, KH Rubin, W Embley, JE Lupton, ET Baker, RP Dziak, TBaumberger, MD Lilley, JA Huber, TM Shank, DA Butterfield, DA Clague, NS Keller, SG Merle, NJ Buck, PJ Michael, A Soule, DW Caress, SL Walker, R Davis, JP Cowen, A-L Reysenbach, H Thomas (2011) Active submarine eruption of boninite in the northeastern Lau Basin, Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1275.
  • Rubin, Macdougall and Perfit (1994) 210Po-210Pb dating of recent volcanic eruptions on the sea floor, Nature 368, 841-844.
  • KH Rubin, MC Smith, EC Bergmanis, MR Perfit, JM Sinton and R Batiza (2001) Geochemical heterogeneity within mid-ocean ridge lava flows: insights into eruption, emplacement and global variations in magma generation. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 188, 349-367.
  • KH Rubin, I. van der Zander, MC Smith and EC Bergmanis (2005) Minimum speed limit for ocean ridge magmatism from 210Pb-226Ra-230Th disequilibria, Nature, 437, 534-538, doi:10.1038/nature03993
  • Rubin, Soule, Chadwick, Fornari, Clague, Embley, Baker, Perfit, Caress, Dziak (2012), Volcanic Eruptions in the Deep Sea, Oceanography, in press.
  • DK Smith, LSL King, KTM Johnson, JR Reynolds (2002) Volcanic morphology of the submarine Puna ridge, Kilauea volcano. Hawaiian Volcanoes: Deep Underwater Perspectives. Geophysical Monograph 128, AGU, p125-142
  • CI Schipper, JDL White, BF Houghton (2011) Textural, geochemical, and volatile evidence for a Strombolian-like eruption sequence at Lo`ihi Seamount, Hawai`i, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 207,16-32.
  • J Sinton, E Bergmanis, KH Rubin, R Batiza, TKP Gregg, K Grönvold, K Macdonald, and S White (2002) Volcanic eruptions on mid-ocean ridges: New evidence from the superfast-spreading East Pacific Rise, 17o-19oS, J. Geophys. Res. 107(B6), 2115, doi:10.1029/2000JB000090.
  • S.A. Soule, D.J. Fornari, M.R. Perfit and K.H. Rubin (2007), New insights into mid-ocean ridge volcanic processes from the 2005-06 eruption of the East Pacific Rise, 9° 46'-56'N, Geology,35 (12), 1079-1082, doi: 10.1130/G23924A.1.
  • M Tolstoy, J P Cowen, E T Baker, DJ Fornari, KH Rubin, TM Shank, F Waldhauser, DR Bohnenstiehl, DW Forsyth, RC Holmes, B Love, MR Perfit, RT Weekly, SA Soule, B. Glazer (2006) A Seafloor Spreading Event Captured by Seismometers, Science, 314, 1920-1922.
  • Von Damm, K.L. (2004) Evolution of the Hydrothermal System at the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N: Geochemical evidence for changes in the upper oceanic crust, Geophys. Monogr., AGU, 148: 285-304.


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last page update on 19 Dec. 2011