Class Schedule and Lecture Note Downloads:
GG711 - Deep Submarine Eruptions
Spring 2007, updated weekly

NOTE: the lecture content is subject to slight shifts and changes,
so if you download files way in advance, check back the day before class
to see if I've posted more recent versions

Instructor: Ken Rubin
Day, Time: Tu-Th, 9-10:15 AM

Place: POST 613
Fellow Seminarians.....

This class will consist of roughly once-a-week semi-informal lectures (usually tuesday) and once a week meetings (usually thursday) in which we will discuss assigned reading papers. We will explore various aspects of volcanic activity in the deep ocean and its effect on the surrounding environment. Expect to read 1-3 research papers a week and to lead a discussion or two later in the semester. (Discussion leaders' names are given in Bold Text for each reading

Click on the Lecture number to obtain the lecture notes for that day
Lecture notes are protected by copyright



Discussion leader + topic

reading (see also full reference list at the bottom of this web page)


Jan 9, 11

Ken, General intro lecture

Francis, Ch2


Jan 16, 18

Ken,  Mid-ocean Ridge Processes Overview

MacDonald et al., 2001 (background, Macdonald 1998)


Jan 23, 25

Ken, Lava flows

Walker, 1971; Chap 4 of “Volcanic Successions”, Cas and Wright


Jan 29, Feb 1

Ken, Ocean ridge volcanism

Perfit and Chadwick, 1998 thru section 3


Feb 6, 8

John Sinton, geology/mapping

Sinton et al., 2002 JGR


Feb 13, 15

Bruce Houghton, Eruption mechanisms/magma fragmentation

Clague et al., 2000; Maicher and White, 2001; Clague et al., 2003; Eissen et al., 2003; Kano, 2003


Feb 20, 22

Margo Edwards, remote mapping

Embley et al., 1999; Ferinni et al., 2007


Feb 27, Mar 1

Fred Duennebier, Seismic detection

Fox et al., 2001 (plus background refs)


Mar 6, 8

Ken, Eruption Geochronology

Rubin et al., 1994; Rubin et al., 1998


Mar 13, 15

Ken, h-therm megaplumes

Baker et al., 1995; Baker, 1998; Palmer and Ernst, 1998

no lecture

Mar 20, 22

Ken, Loihi 1996 and NW Rota 2004-2006 (no lecture tuesday)

Loihi Science Team, 1997; Embley et al., 2004


Mar 27, 29

Spring break


student presentations


Apr 3, 5

thursday: discussion of presentations. no class tuesday



Apr 10, 12

Sam Hulme chemical mappiping of the Mariana arc system

Pearce et al., 2005


Apr 17, 19

Melissa Rotella Endeavour Seismicity

Bohnensteil et al., 2004


Apr 24, 26

Lisa Swinnard submarine Hawaiian volcanism



May 1, 3

Courtney Fritz tba



May 8, 10

Thomas Shea seamounts


Full References
  • Baker et al., 1995, Hydrothermal event plumes from the CoAxial seafloor eruption site, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Geophys Res. Lett., 22, 147-150
  • Baker (1998) Patterns of event and chronic hydrothermal venting following a magmatic intrusion: new perspectives from the 1996 Gorda Ridge eruption, Deap Sea Res II, 45, 2599-2618.
  • Clague, D.A., Davis, A.S., Bischoff, J.L., Dixon, J.E., Geyer, R. 2000. Lava bubble-wall fragments formed by submarine hydrovolcanic explosions on Loihi Seamount and Kilauea Volcano. Bulletin of Volcanology 61: 437-449.
  • Clague D.A., Davis, A.S., Dixon, J.E. 2003. Submarine strombolian eruptions on the Gorda mid-ocean ridge. In: White JDL , Smellie JL, Clague DA (ed) Explosive Subaqueous Volcanism, American Geophysical Union Monograph 140, American Geophysical Union Washington DC, pp 88-93.
  • Eissen, J.P., Fouquet, Y., Hardy, D. and Ondreas, H., 2003. Recent MORB volcaniclastic explosive deposits formed between 500 and 1750 m.b.s.l on the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, south of the Azores. American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph, 140: 143-166.
  • Embley et al. (1999) 1998 eruption of Axial Volcano: multibeam anomalies and seafloor observations, Heophys Res. Lett, 26, 3425-3428
  • Embley et al., (2006) Long-Term Eruptive Activity at a Submarine Arc Volcano, Nature, 441, 494-497 doi:10.1038/nature04762
  • Ferini et al. (2007) Submeter bathymetric mapping of volcanic and hydrothermal features on the East Pacific Rise crest at 9o50'N, G-cubed, vol 8 number 1, Q01006, doi:10.1029/2006GC001333
  • Fox, C.G., H. Matsumoto, T.-K.A. Lau (2001) Monitoring Pacific Ocean seismicity from an autonomous hydrophone array, J. Geophys Res, 106(B3), 4183-4206. plus background papers
    • Fox, et al., Direct observation of a submarine volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow, Nature, 412, 727-729.
    • Fox, Christopher G., W. Eddie Radford, Robert P. Dziak, Tai-Kuan Lau, Haruoshi Matsumoto, and Anthony E. Schreiner, 1995, Acoustic detection of a seafloor spreading episode on the Juan de Fuca Ridge using military hydrophone arrays, Geophysical Research Letters, 22, #2, 131-134.
    • Johnson, R.H.,and R.A. Norris, Significance of spectral banding in hydroacoustic signals from submarine volcanice eruptions: Myojin 1970; J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4461-4469, 1972.
    • Johnson, R.H., Acoustic observations of non-explosive submarine volcanism, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 6093-6096, 1973.
    • Johnson, R.H., Possible submarine volcanic eruption off southern California, Deep Sea Res. 23, 265-267, 1976.
    • Norris, R.A., and R.H. Johnson, Submarine volcanic eruptions recently located in the Pacific by SOFAR hydrophones, J. Geophys. Res., 74, 650-664, 1969.
  • Kano, K., 2003. Subaqueous pumice eruptions and their products: a review. American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph, 140: 213-243.
  • Loihi Science Team (1997) Rapid Response to Submarine Activity at Loihi Volcano, Hawaii. EOS 78, 229-233.
  • Maicher, D. and White, J.D.L., 2001. The formation of deep-sea limu o Pele. Bulletin of Volcanology, 63: 482-496.
  • Macdonald, K. C., 1998, Linkages between faulting, volcanism, hydrothermal activity and segmentation on fast-spreading centers, in Faulting and Magmatism at Mid-Ocean Ridges, Geophysical Monograph 106, 348 p., edited by P. A. D. W.R. Buck J.A. Karson, Y. Lagabrielle, p. 27-59, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.
  • Macdonald, Ken C., et al., 2001. Mid-Ocean Ridge Tectonics, Volcanism and Geomorphology ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OCEAN SCIENCES (eds. J. Steele, S. Thorpe, K. Turekian), Academic Press, p. 1798-1813.
  • Palmer and Ernst (1998) Generation of hydrothermal megaplumes by cooling of pillow basalts at mid-ocean ridges, Nature 393, 643-647
  • Perfit and Chadwick, 1998, Magmatism at mid-ocean ridges: constraints from volcanological and geochemical investigations, p. 59-115 in Faulting and Magmatism at Mid-Ocean Ridges Geophysical Monograph 106, etc... see Macdonal 1998 for more details)
  • Rubin, Macdougall and Perfit (1994) 210Po-210Pb dating of recent volcanic eruptions on the sea floor, Nature 368, 841-844.
  • Rubin, Smith, Perfit, Sacks, Christie (1998), Geochronology and Petrology of lavas from the 1996 North Gorda Ridge eruption, Deep Sea Res. II, 45, 2751-2599.
  • Sinton, J.M. E.C. Bergmanis, K.H. Rubin, R. Batiza, T.P.K. Gregg, K Grönvold, K Macdonald, S White (2002) Volcanic eruptions on mid ocean ridges: New evidence from the superfast spreading East Pacific Rise, 17o -19oS, J. Geophys. Res. 107, ECV3 1-19
  • Walker, 1971, Compound and Simple Lava Flows and Flood Basalts, Bull. Volc., 35, 579-570


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last page update on 12 Apr 2007