The El Niño Southern Oscillation

What is ENSO?

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the oscillation in winds and sea surface temperatures affiliated with the Central Pacific. El Niño and La Niña are the warm and cool phases of this oscillation, shifting back and forth approximately every two to seven years. These shifts bring predictable changes in sea surface temperature and wind patterns, influencing rainfall and ocean upwelling across the tropics. Understanding the global impacts of ENSO on weather as well as accurately predicting these periods are essential, but still poorly understood, research questions.

ENSO Image from