Volcanic History of Kilauea
volcano, on the southernmost Island of Hawaii, is one of the most
active on Earth. It predominantly erupts basaltic lava in effusive eruptions,
although occasionally it experiences explosive eruptions as well.
Kilauea sits on the southeasten side of the Big Island of Hawaii, resting
on the flanks of it's larger neighbor volcano Manua Loa (see map at right).
Kilauea stands just under 4200 feet tall at it's highest point. Kilauea has a 165m deep
circular caldera at its summit that measures 3x5km (or 6x6 km, including the
outermost ring faults). It is said that Kilauea is the home to Pele, the volcano goddess of ancient
Kilauea shares the Hawaiian hot spot with its larger active sibling Mauna Loa and with Loihi seamount. You can view a schematic representation of the geometry of this situation HERE If you would like to learn more about how the Hawaiian islands formed from a single mantle hotspot, visit the Formation of the Hawaiian Islands web page at this site.
Summary of historical eruptions: visit our Kilauea eruption history page.
FOR THE HISTORY BUFF
Want to learn something about Kilauea during the 19th century? Visit our on line version of the book "Life in Hawaii", by Titus Coan. This book, first published in 1882, describes the author's observations of active volcanism on the Big Island during the 19th century. It is being made available to users of this site by Edward Coan, Titus' great-great-grandson. In particular, chapters dealing with Halemaumau and specific eruptions at Kilauea might be of particular interest.
|[ 1840 | 1868 | Halemaumau]|
We encourage you to take some of the 'virtual' field trips of Kilauea's summit and the Chain of Craters road that are available on SOEST's internet site through the NASA Virtually Hawaii Project
|1964||Richter, D. H. et al., The 1961 eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. U.S.Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 474-D, Chapter 17, 34p.|
|1979||Johnson, G. R., Porosity and density of Kilauea Volcano basalts, Hawaii, U.S.Geol. Survey Professional Paper 1123-B 6p.|
|1987||Wolfe et al., The Pu`u `O`o eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Phases 1-20. In: U.S.Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 1350, Chapter 17, 471-508.|
|1988||Wolfe, editor, Episodes 1-20, U.S.Geol. Survey Professional Paper 1463 (this volumes covers most aspects of the early part of this eruption).|
|1990||Hoffmann et al., Geometry of the Pu`u `O`o magma reservoir, Bulletin of Volcanology, 52, 522-531.|
|1991||Heliker and Wright, The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption of Kilauea. EOS, 72, 521-530.|
|1992||Garcia et al., Petrology of lavas from episodes 2-47.
Bulletin of Volcanology, 55, 1-16.
Realmuto et al., Thermal infrared mapping of 1988 lava flow. Bulletin of Volcanology, 55, 33-44.
|1993||Mattox et al., Development of the 1990 Kalapana lava flow
field. Bulletin of Volcanology, 55, 407-413.
Delaney et al., Ground motion during the eruption, 1983-1991. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 17801-17820.
|1994||Dvorak, An earthquake cycle along the south flank of
Kilauea. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 9533-9541.
Parfitt and Wilson, Dike geometry and eruption mechanics for a long-lived eruption. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 59, 179-205.
Hon et al., Emplacement and inflation of pahoehoe sheet flows. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 106, 351-370.
Delaney, P.T. et al., Motion of Kilauea Volcano during sustained eruption from the Puu Oo and Kupaianaha vents, 1983-1991, U.S. Geol. Survey Open-file Report 94-567.
|1995||Mangan et al., Episode 49 of the Pu`u `O`o - Kupaianaha eruption of
Kilauea volcano: breakdown of a steady-state eruptive era.
Bulletin of Volcanology, 57, 127-135.
Parfitt et al., Factors influencing the height of Hawaiian lava fountains. Bulletin of Volcanology, 57, 440-450.
Wallace and Delaney, Deformation of Kilauea volcano during 1982-1983, a transition period. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 8201-8219.
Wilson et al. Explosive volcanic eruptions: The role magma recycling in controlling the behavior of Hawaiian style lava fountains. Geophysics J. International, 121, 215-225.
|1996||Kauahikaua et al., A quantitative look at the demise of a basaltic vent--Death of the Kupaianaha vent. Bulletin of Volcanology, 57,
Garcia et al., Petrology and geochemistry of lavas from 1986-1992. Bulletin of Volcanology, 58, 359-379.
|1997||Denlinger, A dynamic balance between magma supply and eruption rate at Kilauea volcano. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, B8, 18091- 18100.|
|1998||Garcia et al., Crustal contamination of Kilauea magmas revealed by oxygen isotope analyses of glass and olivine from Pu`u `O`o eruption lavas. J. Petrology..|
Lockwood et al., Magma migration and resupply during the 1974 summit eruptions of
Kilauea Volcano, HawaiŽi,U.S.Geol. Survey Report 1613, 37p
Pietruszka, A.J. and Garcia, M.O., The size and shape of Kilauea Volcano's summit magma storage reservoir: a geochemical probe, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 167, 311-320.
|2001||Pietruszka, A.J., Rubin, K.H. and Garcia, M.O., 226Ra-230Th-238U disequilibria of historical Kilauea lavas (1790-1982) and the dynamics of mantle melting within the Hawaiian plume., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 186, 15-31.|
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This page created and maintained by
Ken Rubin ©,
Last page update on 3 Jan 2013