To apply, please see instructions here. In addition to your application to the Graduate Division and the second application package to the Department: If you are interested in a Graduate Research Assistantship, please contact the faculty member(s) you wish to work with directly and/or check for available funded graduate opportunities here. A list of faculty and their research interests can be found here. If you are interested in a Graduate Teaching Assistantship, you must submit a Statement of interest in Graduate Teaching Assistant Position in your second application package to the Department; you may contact Prof. Christina Karamperidou if you would like more information about this position and its duties. For more information, see here or contact the Atmospheric Sciences Department via telephone at (808) 956-8775 or via email at email@example.com.
Revised on March 21, 2017
Chair: Steven Businger, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Graduate Chair: Tim Li, email: email@example.com
Thank you for your interest in graduate studies and research in our department. We are always seeking to recruit excellent students for our graduate program. Atmospheric Sciences has been an academic discipline at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa for over 50 years. The department has built an enviable national and international reputation for research and education, offering both undergraduate (B.S.) and graduate (M.S. and Ph.D.) degree programs. Since 1965 the University has been a member of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, in effect, accrediting our graduate program.
Today the department has grown to 10 full-time faculty, one part-time faculty, and approximately 35 graduate students. The department is part of one of the world’s most active schools in the geosciences – the University of Hawai‘i School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology (SOEST). SOEST has a total about 170 faculty members who study an enormous variety of phenomena related to the physics, chemistry, and biology of the solid earth, ocean, and atmosphere. The faculty and student offices are located in both the Hawai‘i Institute of Geophysics (HIG) building and the adjacent Pacific Ocean Sciences and Technology (POST) building.
Research has been central to the department’s activities since its inception. Despite the department’s modest size, an impressive array of research projects is being pursued. Our faculty and students undertake projects involving experimental work as well as computer modeling and theoretical calculations. Our students’ theses topics focus on a variety of atmospheric phenomena on a wide range of space and time scales. However, our unique situation as the only world-class university located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean has kept our main focus on issues relating to the weather and climate of the tropical Pacific and Asia-Pacific regions.
Department faculty have participated in field experiments in Hawai‘i, the greater Pacific, and elsewhere. These experiments have generally emphasized investigations of cloud physics, and more recently, of convective and mesoscale phenomena. Many graduate students find thesis topics in the analysis of results of such specialized field campaigns, or in related modeling activities.
In early February 2011, several graduate students from the University of Hawaii Atmospheric Sciences Department, including David Hitzl who was working with Professor Yi-Leng Chen, joined the Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research (HiGEAR) on board the Navy-owned research vessel Kilo Moana for a joint research cruise around the Hawaiian Islands. They measured aerosol distribution in the marine boundary layer near and within the largest of the Hawaiian ocean channels, the ʻAlenuihāhā Channel. They launched a total of 26 radiosondes to gather data for research of gap winds, channel accelerations and their associated vorticities, mountain waves, and a sinking of the inversion and possible hydraulic jump within the channel. The data has also been used for verification of the horizontal and vertical fields produced by a mesoscale model (Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)) run for the same location and date as the channel ship passage.
A three-week educational deployment of a polarimetric Doppler on Wheels (DOW) radar was conducted by Professor Michael Bell at the University of Hawai’i at Manoa (UHM) from 22 October – 13 November 2013. The educational deployment of a mobile radar was the first of its kind in Hawai’i and on the island of O’ahu. The central focus of the Hawaiian Educational Radar Opportunity (HERO) was to give undergraduate and graduate students at UHM an opportunity for an intensive, hands-on radar education period. The deployment coincided with the first UHM offering of MET 628 \Radar Meteorology”, which had an enrollment of 12 graduate students who led 16 intensive observing periods (IOPs) with the DOW. A total of approximately 50 participants including graduate students, undergraduate students, and National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters participated in radar training, forecasting, weather balloon launches, and radar deployments around the island. Three special course lectures and two Department seminars from renowned radar experts helped to augment the educational impact of the project. Extensive outreach to the community was also conducted, including a School of Ocean Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) Open House event with over 7,500 visitors from local K-12 schools and the public, a deployment visit from a school for students with learning disabilities, and positive radio, television, and newspaper media coverage.
In July 2014, Professor Nugent worked in New Zealand on an NSF funded aircraft field campaign called DEEPWAVE. The purpose was to collect observations of gravity waves propagating deep into the atmosphere over the South Island. As air flows over the high mountains of NZ, wave disturbances are initiated which travel vertically and can be measured by aircraft and remote sensing lidars. These vertically propagating waves can break and deposit momentum which help to drive global atmospheric circulation.
In August 2014, Professor Christina Karamperidou, then a researcher with the Atmospheric Sciences Department, visited Kiritimati Island. The purpose of this trip was to obtain lake sediment cores which can provide records of past precipitation variability in the central Pacific region. Precipitation on Kiritimati is associated with ENSO variability, as well as multidecadal variability of mean tropical Pacific climate. The lead investigator of this project was Prof. Jessica Conroy of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
In March 2015, Professor Karamperidou also visited the “Big Island” of Hawaii. The purpose of this trip was to conduct tree-ring research on Mamane trees on the Big Island of Hawaii. The lead investigators of this project were Prof. Patrick Hart of UH Hilo, and Ed Cook of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
In July 2015, Professor Nugent worked on another NSF funded aircraft field campaign called Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET). Flights flown between California and Hawaii tracked air masses and observed the change in cloud and atmospheric properties from the stratocumulus clouds off the coast of California to the trade cumulus clouds we experience here in Hawaii.
Professor Jennifer Small Griswold and her student, Ashley Heikkila, conducted a field project, ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES), in Namibia Africa during the Summer and Fall of 2016. Additional information can be found in this Science Magazine article. There will be follow-up trips in 2017 and 2018.
In 2016, the Jonathan Merage Foundation embarked on a long-term partnership with the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) to explore how long-range lightning data can potentially improve storm forecasting. “Through the ingest of lightning and storm balloon data, this project aims to increase our ability to map water vapor and heat associated with condensation of water in hurricane storm clouds in the core of the storm,” said Professor Steven Businger, chair of the SOEST Atmospheric Sciences Department and project lead. “In the process, details of the initial storm circulation in the hurricane model will be improved.” The project began this summer in Colorado with the launch of the first storm balloon. The balloons for this experiment were produced in collaboration with Smith & Williamson, an engineering firm specializing in developing custom prototypes for atmospheric and oceanographic exploration.
We are fortunate that the National Weather Service (NWS) Honolulu Forecast Office is located in the HIG building. The NWS provides access to real time weather data and allows interactions with the operational forecasters. Several of our graduate students have worked part-time in the forecast office. Some of the department’s research activities are directly related to improving short-term weather forecasts for the Hawaiian Islands, including high resolution experimental forecasts for the entire State of Hawaii and major individual islands for the Hawaiian Island chain, and specialized forecasts for the use of astronomers operating the world renowned observatories on Mauna Kea on the Island of Hawai‘i. The high-resolution experimental model output is provided to the forecasters of the NWS for the preparation of graphic forecast products for the State of Hawaii, ocean modelers to drive ocean circulation and wave models, and the US Forest Service for wild fire risk assessment and management. Practical applications of meteorological information for the State of Hawai‘i are also provided by the State Climate Office, directed by Dr. Pao-Shin Chu, who is one of our faculty members, and through interactions between our faculty and students and the regional office of the NWS as well as other state and county agencies.
Studies of the basic physics of tropical atmospheric circulations on seasonal and longer timescales, notably the El Niño phenomenon and the Asian monsoon circulations, have a long and distinguished history in the department and in our sister Oceanography department. In 1997, our endeavors in climate studies were significantly enhanced by the advent of the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC), now located in the POST building. The IPRC is a joint Japan-US research center for the study of climate variations and long-term climate change in the Asian-Pacific region. Five Atmospheric Sciences Department faculty members also have appointments in the IPRC along with a similar number of Oceanography department faculty.
The remainder of this brochure provides information on our requirements for applicants and graduates (next two sections), key information about our course offerings (page 5), our faculty and their research interests (page 14), and information on financial aid possibilities for our students (page 10).
Our student body now consists of about 15 students pursuing an M.S. degree and 20 in our Ph.D. program. Our students come from Hawai‘i, the US mainland, and other countries. The main qualification to join our program is good performance in an undergraduate program that includes basic training in mathematics (at least through differential equations) and physics. Some of our graduate students have come to us with undergraduate degrees in atmospheric sciences but many others have undergraduate degrees in physics, chemistry, mathematics, engineering, or related subjects and have not had any prior courses in atmospheric sciences.
REQUIREMENTS FOR OUR GRADUATE DEGREES
The department offers two paths to a master’s degree in atmospheric sciences, plan A and plan B.
Plan A: Thesis Option Requirements
Graduation with a master’s degree via Plan A requires completion of an acceptable thesis and a successful defense of the thesis in an oral examination.
A total of 30 official course credit hours must also be earned. This will be made up of:
- At least 18 credits of regular course work (i.e., excluding ATMO 699, 700 and 765), with a minimum of 12 credits in courses numbered 600 and above.
- 1 credit of ATMO 765
- 6 credits of ATMO 700 Thesis Research and
- 5 more credits either from regular courses or ATMO 699 Directed Research
Our core requirements include ATMO 600, 610, 620 and one term of forecasting (ATMO 412 or 416), unless a student has completed an equivalent synoptic meteorology course elsewhere with at least a B-. Students must obtain a minimum GPA of 3.0 for the courses counted as our core (ATMO 600, 610, and 620, plus one of ATMO 412 or 416, if that is taken by the student). As well, students must maintain a GPA of at least 3.0 for the courses they take in the MS program.
Plan B: Non-Thesis Option Requirements
Graduation requirements for a master’s degree via Plan B emphasize a greater number of graduate level courses, but no thesis. A total of 30 official ATMO course credit hours must be earned, which will be made up of the following:
- At least 18 credits of regular course work (i.e., excluding ATMO 699, 700, and 765) in courses numbered 600 and above.
- 1 credit of ATMO 765.
- 9 additional credits of regular ATMO course work in 400 level undergraduate courses and graduate courses (600- and 700-level). Regarding undergraduate courses, we expect that students without a US major in atmospheric sciences may want to take the advanced dynamics course (ATMO 402) and one or both of the forecasting courses (ATMO 412, ATMO 416).
- 2 credits of ATMO 699 Directed Research/Reading. These 2 credits with a written term paper, along with ATMO 765, Seminar in Atmospheric Sciences with an oral presentation, are the capstone project for the Plan B program.
Our core requirements include ATMO 600, 610, and 620, and one term of a forecasting lab. Unless a student has completed an equivalent course elsewhere, the forecasting laboratory requirement is met with either ATMO 412 or ATMO 416. These core requirements are met by passing with a grade of B- or higher. Other graduate and undergraduate credits may be taken in other fields and applied to the degree program (requirements 1, 3 above).
There is neither a general exam nor a final exam for Plan B. Students must obtain a minimum GPA of 3.0 for the courses counted as our core. As well, students must maintain a GPA of at least 3.0 for all the courses applied to the MS program.
MS Plan B candidates must be enrolled during the term in which they complete the requirements for the degree; regular course work or ATMO 500 (Master’s Plan B Studies) may be used to meet this requirement. The ATMO 500 course is offered as a 1-credit course with a mandatory grading of S/NG but does not carry credit toward meeting degree requirements.
The Ph.D. student exhibits a higher level of independence and originality of thought than that required of the M.S. student.
Students must satisfy several requirements in order to graduate with a Ph.D. degree. Each student is required to pass at least eight graduate-level courses numbered 600 and above, with a grade of B- or higher. These courses will be in dynamic, synoptic, physical, tropical meteorology, oceanography, or another closely related field. At least five of these courses must be completed at the Mānoa campus. At the discretion of the Graduate Chair, a student may be awarded credit for up to three relevant graduate courses taken elsewhere. The courses taken either here or elsewhere need to cover the core requirements ATMO 600, 610, 620 and one of ATMO 412 or ATMO 416. A student must pass each of these core courses with a grade of at least B-. A student must obtain a minimum 3.0 GPA in the core courses taken at Mānoa. A student must also maintain a GPA of at least 3.0 for all the courses taken in the Ph.D. program at Mānoa.
Students with an MS degree from our department will need to complete, with a grade of B- or higher, at least five (5) graduate-level courses numbered 600 and above that are not counted toward his (her) MS degree requirements. These courses must have a close relationship with the geosciences or a relationship to the research topic of the graduate student. Prior approval by graduate chair and advisor is required via an official memo to the Graduate Division.
After these courses are successfully completed, but no later than the 24th month in the Ph.D. program, each student must pass a two-part comprehensive examination. The purpose of this exam is to ascertain the student’s comprehension of the broad field of atmospheric sciences and ensure that the student is well prepared for Ph.D. research. The first part of the comprehensive examination is a set of written exercises completed in a single day. The student will also take an oral examination within three to seven days after the written exam.
No later than 12 months after the successful completion of the comprehensive examination, each student is required to submit a written research prospectus for approval to his/her dissertation committee.
A Ph.D. student must also successfully complete two semesters of ATMO 765 during his/her Ph.D. studies. If ATMO 765 was taken before the student was admitted to the Ph.D. program, it cannot be counted towards satisfying this requirement.
Finally, the student must complete an acceptable Ph.D. thesis and successfully defend it in a public final oral defense.
All are three credit lecture courses, except as noted.
ATMO 302 Atmospheric Physics
Energy and thermodynamics, statics and stability, physical processes of cloud formation, radiation and earth-atmosphere heat balance, kinetic theory, optical effects. Prerequisite: MATH 242, Physics 272, and ATMO 200, or consent of instructor.
ATMO 303 Introduction to Atmospheric Dynamics
Scalar and vector development of basic laws of hydrodynamics, equations of motion, kinematics, divergence and vorticity, viscosity and turbulence, introduction to numerical weather prediction, general circulation. Prerequisite: ATMO 302, MATH 244.
ATMO 305 Meteorological Instruments and Observations
First and second order measurement systems. Response of wind, temperature and recording instruments. Discussion of advance system including radar. Planning of field programs. Prerequisite: ATMO 302 and PHYS 272–272L.
ATMO 310 Global Environmental Change
Global environmental change problems such as carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect, acid rain, chlorofluorocarbons and the ozone layer, global deforestation and the effect on climate, etc. Prerequisite: OCN 200, OCN 201, GG 101, GG 103 or GG 170, or consent of instructor. (Cross-listed as OCN 310.)
ATMO 320 Programming for Meteorologists
Scientific programming in Fortran 77, graphics software and meteorological applications. Prerequisite: ATMO 302 (or concurrent) and MATH 241 or consent.
ATMO 402 Applied Atmospheric Dynamics
Advanced concepts in dynamics: vorticity; cyclogenesis; jet streams; fronts; and mesoscale circulation. Prerequisite: ATMO 303.
ATMO 405 Satellite Meteorology (Lecture and Labs)
Orbital elements, ephemerides, viewing geometry; radiation, satellite sensors; interpreting satellite data; applications to synoptic meteorology and forecasting. Prerequisite: ATMO 302.
ATMO 406 Tropical Meteorology
History, tropical clouds and hydrometeors, typhoons, monsoons, local and diurnal effects.
Prerequisite: ATMO 303.
ATMO 412 Meteorological Analysis Lab (Lab)
Technique of portraying and analyzing atmospheric structure and weather systems in middle and high latitudes; modern methods of forecasting extratropical systems. Prerequisite: ATMO 303 (or concurrent).
ATMO 416 Tropical Analysis Lab (Lab)
Techniques of portraying and analyzing atmospheric structure and weather systems in tropical and equatorial regions; forecasting tropical systems. Prerequisite: ATMO 303 (or concurrent).
ATMO 600 Atmospheric Dynamics I
Governing equations for moist atmospheric motions, approximations, basic theoretical models, boundary layer dynamics, atmospheric waves, quasi-geostrophic theory for mid-latitudes. Prerequisite: ATMO 402 and either MATH 402 or MATH 405.
ATMO 601 Atmospheric Dynamics II
Overview of dynamic meteorology, numerical weather prediction, geophysical fluid instabilities, approximate dynamical systems, atmospheric general circulation, stratospheric dynamics. Prerequisite: ATMO 600. (alternate years)
ATMO 606 Cumulus Dynamics
Dynamics of convective systems: tornadoes; waterspouts; squall lines. Interactions with synoptic scale. Prerequisite: ATMO 620 or consent. (alternate years)
ATMO 607 Mesoscale Meteorology
Scale analysis. Observational and theoretical aspects of mesoscale circulation systems. Prerequisite: ATMO 600 or consent. (alternate years)
ATMO 610 Tropical Climate and Weather
Climate and general circulation of the tropics; El Niño and Southern Oscillation; intraseasonal oscillation; tradewinds; tropical weather systems; energy balance; typhoons. Prerequisite: ATMO 303 or consent.
ATMO 614 Tropical Cyclones
Lecture covering fundamentals of tropical cyclone structure, motion, and impacts on society. Observations from satellites, aircraft, ships and buoys, and numerical simulations focusing on storm structure and track. Some forecasting exercises. Repeatable one time. Prerequisite: ATMO 600 and 610 or consent. (alternate years)
ATMO 616 Monsoon Meteorology
Synoptic components of monsoons, regional and temporal variability, numerical models, research exercises. Prerequisite: ATMO 610 or consent of instructor. (usually offered alternate years).
ATMO 620 Physical Meteorology
Molecular kinetics, atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud physics, precipitation processes, atmospheric electricity, scattering and absorption of solar radiation, absorption and emission of infrared radiation, radiative transfer. Prerequisite: ATMO 302 or consent.
ATMO 628 Radar Meteorology (Lecture and Labs)
Radar hardware, electromagnetic propagation and scattering, radar equation, signal processing, precipitation estimation and polarimetric applications, multi-Doppler wind synthesis, mobile and spaceborne radars, forecasting and data assimilation applications. Prerequisite: ATMO 620 (with a minimum grade of B- or higher) or consent. (alternate years)
ATMO 631 Statistical Meteorology
Probability; frequency distributions of atmospheric variables; linear models; time series analysis (frequency and time domain); principal component analysis; statistical weather forecasting and verification. Prerequisite: MATH 371.
(usually offered alternate years)
ATMO 632 Advanced Statistical Methods in the Geosciences
Methods for numerous multivariate analyses will include singular spectrum, extended empirical orthogonal function, singular-value decomposition, canonical correlation, discriminant, and cluster analysis. Other advanced topics include wavelet analysis, statistical downscaling, and Bayesian analysis. Prerequisite: ATMO 631 or consent. (usually offered every three years)
ATMO 665 Small-Scale Air-Sea Interaction
Observations and theory of small–scale processes that couple the atmosphere and ocean boundary layers, including introduction to turbulence theory and parameterization of turbulent fluxes. Prerequisite: MATH 402 and MATH 403 (or their equivalents) and either OCN 620 or ATMO 600, or consent. (Cross-listed as OCN 665). (alternate years)
ATMO 666 Large-Scale Ocean–Atmosphere Interactions
This lecture/seminar course introduces physical oceanography and meteorology students to the state-of-the–art theories and observations of large-scale ocean- atmosphere interaction, as well as conveying fundamental understanding developed during the past 30 years. Emphasis will be on phenomena such as El Niño/Southern Oscillation, the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and global climate change. Repeatable one time. Prerequisite: ATMO 600 or OCN 620, or consent. (alternate years)
ATMO 699 Directed Research (variable credits) Prerequisite: consent.
ATMO 700 Thesis Research (variable credits)
ATMO 702 Numerical Weather Prediction (Lectures and Lab)
Fundamental methods and techniques in numerical prediction: time differencing, spatial finite differencing, spectral methods, numerical stability, explicit and implicit methods. Modern operational and research forecast models. Hands-on laboratory includes simple to complex dynamic models, with a term project. Repeatable one time. Prerequisite: ATMO 600 or OCN 620, MATH 407 or 408, or consent. (alternate years)
ATMO 704 Climate and Climate Variability
Physical basis of climate, numerical climate models, paleoclimatic indicators, modern instrumental climate records, assessment of human impact on climate, predictions of future climate. Repeatable one time. Prerequisite: ATMO 600 or OCN 620, or consent. (alternate years)
ATMO 706 Tropical Climate Dynamics and Modeling
Overview of current progress in tropical climate dynamics with a particular focus on large-scale atmosphere-ocean interactions; introduction of basic numerical techniques for students to construct and run immediate tropical atmosphere and ocean models. Prerequisite: ATMO 600.
ATMO 708 General Circulation of the Atmosphere
Theory, observations, large-scale analyses, and global model simulations that describe characteristic large-scale circulation of the Earth’s atmosphere. Includes zonally averaged climatology, asymmetric features of the general circulation, and El Nino – Southern Oscillation phenomenon. Repeatable one time. Prerequisite: ATMO 600 or consent.
ATMO 752 Special Topics in Meteorology
Concentrated studies on selected atmospheric problems. Repeatable two times. Prerequisite: ATMO 600 or consent.
ATMO 765 Seminar in Meteorology (1 credit)
Participation in departmental seminars and presentation of a seminar on research results. Includes written critiques of departmental seminars. Repeatable three times. Prerequisite: consent.
ATMO 800 Dissertation Research (variable credits)
Many of our students also take courses in Oceanography (OCN), Mathematics (MATH), Geology and Geophysics (GG), and other departments. Particularly useful courses include MATH 407 (Numerical Analysis), GG 312 (Geomathematics), OCN 620 (Physical Oceanography), and OCN 660 (Ocean Waves I). More details about available courses can be found in the University of Hawai‘i at the Mānoa catalogue, online at https://manoa.hawaii.edu/catalog.
Your academic qualifications will be evaluated by our faculty and appropriate recommendations made to the University of Hawai‘i Graduate Division after receipt by the Graduate Division of the following:
1. Application form;
2. One official copy of transcripts directly from the registrar of each institution attended;
3. Official GRE (GEN) scores (required of all doctoral applicants; strongly recommended for M.S. applicants);
4. Official TOEFL score report (Foreign applicants); and
5. Application fee.
You will be notified as soon as action is taken on your application by the
|Semester||U.S. Applicants||International Applicants|
|Fall||March 1||March 1|
|Spring||October 1||October 1|
The University of Hawaii Graduate Division Admissions Office can be contacted at:
2540 Maile Way, Spalding 354
University of Hawaii Honolulu, HI 96822
Please also submit the following to the Department of Atmospheric Sciences:
- Interest statement;
- Three letters of recommendation from former professors or employers;
- Curriculum vitae (one page); and
- Statement of interest in Graduate Teaching Assistant Position (if applicable).
In order to provide you with the most appropriate academic guidance for your individual needs, we request a brief statement describing your interest in atmospheric sciences. Your one-to-two page interest statement should explain why you have chosen to continue your education in atmospheric sciences. It should also briefly state your work experience and career plans, as well as any specialization preferences you wish to express. If interested in being considered for the Graduate Teaching Assistant Position which offers financial support and a tuition waiver (see here for more information), then please provide a one-page TA interest statement, which should include any prior teaching or related experience (e.g. tutoring, mentoring, coaching etc) and motivation for the position.
FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
Most of our graduate students receive some form of financial assistance. The most common method of support is a graduate research assistantship (GRA), which is formally an appointment as a researcher working 20 hours per week, and normally funded by federal research grants obtained by individual faculty members. Often the work conducted for the GRA is directly related to the student’s thesis topic. The department also has a limited number of Graduate Teaching Assistantships (GTAs), which are 20 hour per week appointments with duties involving undergraduate instruction. All graduate teaching assistants serving in any capacity are under the direction and supervision of a regular member of the faculty. The duties of a GTA will generally fall within one or more of the following categories: assisting a faculty member in grading, advising, and administrative duties associated with a course or courses; teaching a laboratory or discussion section of a course; or teaching a classroom section of a multi-section course under the supervision of a faculty member responsible for the course.
Students with 20-hour per week GRA or GTA appointments receive free tuition. A very small number of additional tuition waivers may be available for some students who do not have GRA or GTA appointments.
In addition, some students obtain their own funding through external fellowships, such as those awarded to outstanding students by the National Science Foundation.
Eligibility for Appointment as a Graduate Assistant
Only full-time classified graduate students admitted to and enrolled in a graduate program for an advanced degree (M.S. or Ph.D.) are eligible for a graduate assistantship. Certificate, post-baccalaureate unclassified, and non-degree seeking students are not eligible.
To be eligible for a graduate assistantship, an applicant or continuing student must:
a. Have a superior scholastic record and an adequate background;
b. Maintain a minimum grade point average of 3.0 or higher;
c. Be in good academic standing. Students on probation are not eligible for appointment nor are students admitted conditionally due to low grades;
d. Posses the experience or qualifications required to perform the duties of the assistantship to which he or she is to be appointed; and
e. Non-native English speakers who wish to be appointed to a graduate teaching assistantship must demonstrate proficiency in English. Typically, this requires a high TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) score or equivalent indication of competence in written and spoken English.
How are GRA and GTA Appointments Made?
Academic achievement as well as the motivation and goals of the student applicants are among the factors considered in the awarding of assistantships. At the conclusion of its deliberations the department or program submits the names of the candidates for graduate assistantships to the Graduate Division, where each candidate’s academic record is reviewed to confirm eligibility. When the Graduate Division has approved the appointment, the department notifies the student of the final offer of appointment in an official letter.
The student should send a letter to the Department Chair and the faculty member by whom he/she has been contacted formally accepting the offer.
All appointments are subject to the availability of funds.
GRA and GTA Stipends
Graduate assistants are given appointments for either 9-months (typically
mid-August to mid-May) or 11-months. In each case the actual payments are made in twelve monthly installments. Each year the University of Hawai‘i sets a scale for graduate stipends. The scale currently allows annual stipends (for 20-hour per week appointments) between $21,288 and $30,312 for 9-months or $24,912 to $35,460 for 11-months. The exact amount offered to each student may depend on the student’s experience, ability, and assigned responsibility. The placement is also contingent on availability of funds. An up-to-date schedule of stipends is available at:
For a more general discussion of graduate assistantships, tuition and financial aid, please see:
Occasionally, graduate assistant appointments can change to full time (40 hours per week) for one or two months during the summer, leading to an increased total annual stipend.
LIST OF CURRENT GRADUATE FACULTY
Our graduate students benefit from the expertise of the 13 full-time professors and one half-time researcher with appointments in the Atmospheric Sciences Department and four cooperating graduate faculty with appointments in other departments. All these faculty members can serve as faculty advisors for graduate students. In addition, scientists in the other departments and institutes in SOEST provide a wealth of local expertise in the geosciences. Detailed statements of research interests by each faculty member and lists of their publications are given in the next section.
Steven Businger, Ph.D., University of Washington. Mesoscale and synoptic meteorology, satellite meteorology, storm structure and dynamics. email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Yi-Leng Chen, Ph.D., University of Illinois. Mesoscale meteorology, heavy rainfall. email: email@example.com
Pao-Shin Chu, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison. Climate variability and natural hazards, tropical cyclones, climate prediction. email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Fei-Fei Jin, Ph.D., Academia Sinica (China). Dynamical meteorology, climate dynamics. email: email@example.com
Bin Wang, Ph.D., Florida State University. Climate dynamics, geophysical fluid dynamics, tropical meteorology. email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Yuqing Wang, Ph.D., Monash University (Australia). Atmospheric dynamics and physics, climate modeling, tropical meteorology. email: email@example.com
Jennifer D. Small Griswold Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz. Cloud microphysics, aerosols and climate, satellite remote sensing of clouds and aerosols. firstname.lastname@example.org
Christina Karamperidou, Ph.D., Columbia. Climate variability and change, ENSO dynamics, paleoclimate modeling, dynamical systems theory, hydro-climate modeling. email: email@example.com
Alison D. Nugent, Ph. D., Yale University. Mountain meteorology, mesoscale meteorology, cloud physics, and cloud microphysics. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Jingxia Zhao, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles. Atmospheric chemistry and physical meteorology. email: email@example.com
Cooperating Graduate Faculty
H. Annamalai, Ph.D., Indian Institute of Technology. Associate Researcher, International Pacific Research Center. Tropical climate dynamics, climate variability and prediction. email: firstname.lastname@example.org
John N. Porter, Ph.D., University of Hawai‘i. Associate Researcher, Hawai‘i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology. Satellite and ground-based optical sensing of atmospheric aerosols. email: email@example.com
Tiziana Cherubini, Ph.D., University of Rome, “La Sapienza”, Italy, Associate Researcher, Institute for Astronomy. Mesoscale numerical weather prediction, optical turbulence, mountain weather forecasting. email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Antony D. Clarke, Ph.D., University of Washington. (Researcher, Oceanography) Marine aerosols, biogeochemical cycles, optical properties. email: email@example.com
Barry J. Huebert, Ph.D., Northwestern University. (Professor of Oceanography) Atmospheric chemistry. email: firstname.lastname@example.org
FACULTY INTERESTS AND RECENT PUBLICATIONS
More than 25 years experience in observational meteorology and mesoscale numerical weather prediction with emphasis on better understanding the evolution and structure of destructive atmospheric storms including frontal cyclones, hurricanes, and severe thunderstorms. Links to my research projects and PDF’s of most of my papers can be found at http://imina.soest.hawaii.edu/MET/Faculty/businger/
- Kealy, J, J. Foster, and S. Businger, 2012: GPS meteorology: An investigation of ocean-based precipitable water estimates. J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JD017422.
- Cherubini, T., and S. Businger, 2012: Another look at the refractive index structure function. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 498-506.
- Ellis, R., and S. Businger, 2010: Helical circulations in the typhoon boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D06205, doi:10.1029/2009JD011819.
- Murphy, M., and S. Businger, 2010: Orographic influences on an Oahu Flood. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 2198-2217.
- Pessi, A. T., and S. Businger, 2009: Relationships between lightning rate, rainfall rate, and hydrometeor profiles over the North Pacific Ocean. J. Appl. Meteor., 48, 833-848.
- Pessi, A. T., and S. Businger, 2009: The impact of lightning data assimilation on a winter storm simulation over the North Pacific Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 3177-3195.
- Squires, K. and S. Businger, 2008: Analysis of lightning outbreaks in the eyewalls of two category 5 hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 1706-172.
- Cherubini, T., S. Businger, R. Lyman, and M. Chun, 2008: Modeling optical turbulence and seeing over Mauna Kea. J. Appl. Meteor. Clim., 47, 1140-1155.
- Pessi, A. T., S. Businger, K. L. Cummins, N. W. S. Demetriades, M. Murphy and B. Pifer, 2008: Development of a long-range lightning detection network for the Pacific: construction, calibration and performance. J. Atmos. and Ocean. Tech., 26, 145-166.
- Cherubini, T., S. Businger, and R. Lyman, 2008: Modeling turbulence and seeing over Mauna Kea: Validation and Algorithm Refinement. J. Appl. Meteor., 47, 3033-3043.
- Businger, S., R. Johnson, and R. Talbot, 2006: Scientific insights from four generations of Lagrangian smart balloons in atmospheric research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, 1539-1554.
My research interests are in the following areas: island effects on weather and climate over the Hawaiian islands and adjacent waters from data analyses; assimilation of unconventional data in the initial conditions of regional models; and high- resolution numerical modeling including summer trade-wind weather, high-wind and heavy-rainfall events, and regional climate. The high-resolution model output is also used as input for modeling of ocean circulations and waves. My research also includes the processes related to heavy monsoon rainfall over Taiwan and southern China during the early summer rainy season. Both Taiwan and the Hawaiian Islands have similar problems with heavy rainfall. They both are in a subtropical flow regime with orographic influences. In addition, I am also interested in studying tropical cyclone development over the Western Pacific and the interactions of tropical cyclones with island terrain.
- Tu, C.-C., Y.-L. Chen, C.-S. Chen, P.-L. Lin and P.-H. Lin, 2013: A comparison of rainfall distributions between two heavy rain periods during terrain-influenced monsoon rainfall experiment (TiMREX) 2008. Mon. Wea. Rev. (in review).
- Xu, W., E. J. Zipser, Y.-L. Chen, C. Liu,, W.-C. Lee and B. Jou, 2012 :An orography-associated extreme rainfall event during TiMREX: triggering, storm evolution, and maintenance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 2555-2574.
- Jayawardena, S., Y.-L. Chen, A.J. Nash and K. Kodama, 2012: A comparison of three prolonged periods of heavy rainfall over the Hawaiian islands. J. Appl. Meteor Climate, 51, 722-744.
- Lin, P.-L., Y.-L. Chen, C.-S. Chen, C.-L. Liu, and C.-Y. Chen, 2011: Numerical experiments investigating the orographic effects on a heavy rainfall event over the northwestern coast of Taiwan during TAMEX IOP 13. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 114, 35-50.
- Tu, C.-C., and Y.-L. Chen, 2011: Favorable conditions for the development of a heavy rainfall event over Oahu during the 2006 wet period . Wea. Forecasting, 26, 280-300.
- Nguyen, H. V., and Y.-L. Chen, 2011: High resolution initialization and simulations of typhoon Morakot (2009). Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 1463-1491.
- Stopa, J. E., K. F. Cheung , Y.-L. Chen, 2011: Assessment of wave energy resources in Hawaii. Renewable Energy, 36, 554-567.
- Hartley, T., and Y.-L. Chen, 2010: Characteristics of summer trade-wind rainfall over Oahu. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 1797-1815.
- Carlis, D., L., Y.-L. Chen, and V. Morris, 2010: Numerical simulations of island-scale airflow and the Maui vortex during summer trade-wind conditions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 2706-2736.
- Nguyen, H. V., Y.-L. Chen, and F. Fujioka, 2010: Numerical simulations of island effects on airflow and weather during the summer over the Island of Oahu. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 2253-2280.
- Kerns, B., Y.-L. Chen and M.-Y. Chang 2010: The diurnal cycle of winds, rain and clouds over Taiwan during the Mei-Yu, summer, and autumn regimes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 497-516.
My areas of research include: climate variability and natural disasters (hurricane, drought, wild land fires), climate change in the tropics, extreme events in a changing climate, and statistical/dynamical downscaling. Emphasis is placed on Hawai‘i, tropical Pacific Islands, East Asia, and South Asia.
- Garza, J., P.-S. Chu, Chase Norton, and T.A. Schroeder, 2012: Changes of the prevailing trade winds over the Islands of Hawaii and surrounding ocean. J. Geophys. Res. (Atmospheres), 117, D11109, doi:10.1029/2011JD016888.
- Chu, P.-S., J.-H. Kim, and Y. R. Chen, 2012: Have steering flows over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea changed over the last 50 years? Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10704, doi:10.1029/2012GL051709.
- Kim, H.-S., J.-H. Kim, C.-H. Ho, and P.-S. Chu, 2012: Track-pattern-based model for seasonal prediction of tropical cyclone activity in the western North Pacific. J. Climate, 4660-4679.
- Giambelluca, T., Q. Chen, A. Frazier, J. Price, Y.-L. Chen, P.-S. Chu, J. Eischeid, and D.M. Delparte, 2012: Online rainfall atlas of Hawaii. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., . (http://dx.doi.org.eres.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00228.1)
- Craddock, R.A., A. D. Howard, R. P. Irwin, R. M. E. Williams, S. Tooth, P.-S. Chu , and D. Swanson, 2012: Gully development in the Keanakāko‘i Tephra, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i: Implications for fluvial erosion and valley network formation on early Mars. J. Geophys. Res. (Planet), 117, E08009, doi:10.1029/2012JE004074.
- Chu, P.-S., and X. Zhao, 2011: Bayesian analysis for extreme climatic events: A review.
- Atmospheric Research, 102, 243-262 (An Invited Paper).
- Norton, C., P.-S. Chu, and T.A. Schroeder, 2011: Estimating changes in future heavy rainfall events for Oahu, Hawaii: A statistical downscaling approach. J. Geophy. Res. (Atmospheres), 116, D17110, doi:10.1029/2011JD015641.
- Kim, H.-S., J.-H. Kim, C.-H. Ho, and P.-S. Chu, 2011: Pattern classification of typhoon tracks using the fuzzy c-means clustering method. J. Climate, 24, 488-508.
- Chu, P.-S., Y. R. Chen, and T.A. Schroeder, 2010: Changes in precipitation extremes in the Hawaiian Islands in a warming climate. J. Climate, 23, 4881-4900.
- Lu, M.-M., P.-S. Chu, and Y.-C. Lin, 2010: Seasonal prediction of tropical cyclone activity in the vicinity of Taiwan using the Bayesian multivariate regression method. Weather and Forecasting, 25, 1780-1795.
- Chu, P.-S., X. Zhao, C.-H. Ho, H.-S. Kim, M.-M. Lu, and J.-H. Kim, 2010: Bayesian forecasting of seasonal typhoon activity: A track-pattern-oriented categorization approach. J. Climate, 23, 6654-6668.
- Chu, P.-S., X. Zhao, and J.-H. Kim, 2010: Regional typhoon activity as revealed by track patterns and climate change. Hurricanes and Climate Change, Vol. 2, Eds. J. Elsner et al., Springer, 137-148.
- Chowdhury, M..R., A.G. Barnston, C. Guard, S. Duncan, T.A. Schroeder, and P.-S. Chu, 2010: Sea-level variability and change in the US-affiliated Pacific islands: Understanding the high sea levels during 2006-2008. Weather, 65, 263-268.
- Zhao, X., and P.-S. Chu, 2010: Bayesian change-point analysis for extreme events (Typhoons, Heavy rainfall, and Heat Waves): A RJMCMC approach. J. Climate, 23, 1034-1046.
- Kim, H.S., C.-H. Ho, P.-S. Chu, and J.-H. Kim, 2010: Seasonal prediction of summertime tropical cyclone activity over the East China Sea using the least absolute deviation regression and the Poisson regression. Int. J. Climatol., 30, 210-219.
- Kim, J.-H., C.-H. Ho, and P.-S. Chu, 2010: Dipolar redistribution of summertime tropical cyclone genesis between the Philippine Sea and the northern South China Sea and its possible mechanisms. J. Geophy. Res-Atmosphere., 115, D06104, doi:10.1029/2009JD012196.
- Chou, J., J.-Y. Tu, and P.-S. Chu, 2010: Possible impacts of global warming on typhoon activity in the vicinity of Taiwan. Climate Change and Variability, S. Simard, Ed., ISBN: 978-963-307-144-2. InTech, 79-96. Available from http://www.intechopen.com/books/climate change-and-variability/possible-impacts-of-global-warming-on-typhoon-activity-in-the vicinity-of-taiwan.
- Chowdhury, MR., P.-S. Chu, X. Zhao, T.A. Schroeder, and J. Marra, 2010: Sea level extremes in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands – A coastal hazard scenario to aid in decision analyses. J. Coast. Conserv.,14, 53-62, DOI 10.1007/s11852-010-0086-3.
- Tu, J.-Y., C. Chou, and P.-S. Chu, 2009: Abrupt shift of typhoon activity in the vicinity of Taiwan and its association with the western North Pacific-East Asia climate change.
- J. Climate, 22, 3617-3628.
- Chu, P.-S., X. Zhao,Y. Ruan, and M. Grubbs, 2009: Extreme rainfall events in the Hawaiian Islands. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatology, 48, 502-516.
- Dolling, K., P.-S. Chu, and F. Fujioka, 2009: Natural variability of the Keetch/Byram drought index in the Hawaiian Islands. Int. J. Wildland Fire, 18, 459-475.
- Ho, C.-H., H.-S. Kim, and P.-S. Chu, 2009: Seasonal prediction of tropical cyclone frequency over the east China Sea through a Bayesian Poisson-regression method.
- Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 45, 45-54.
Jennifer D. Small Griswold
My research focuses on cloud microphysics, aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, aircraft observations of clouds, and satellite remote sensing of clouds and aerosol. Specifically, I focus on the interaction between aerosols and clouds using multi-platform satellite data, predominantly from NASA’s A-Train satellite constellation. I’m interested in how aerosols (fires, volcanic ash, dust, and human pollution) can alter cloud properties and how these changes modify precipitation. My research also includes using aircraft mounted cloud probes to make measurements of cloud properties such as cloud droplet size velocity. Using these types of observations I investigate how and why warm cumulus clouds and stratocumulus clouds precipitate and how the mixing process and turbulence are related to cloud lifetime and the timing and amount of precipitation. My recent research combines satellite data, aircraft observations and model results from global climate models.
I am also deeply dedicated to education and outreach. I conduct science education research on teaching climate science through writing, rather than through traditional lectures, as well as the development and testing of new teaching methods to improve undergraduate education in the earth and atmospheric sciences. I also routinely participate in community outreach to expose young women and minorities to Science Technology, Engineering and Math career opportunities through the Expanding Your Horizons Network and Conferences.
- Small, J.D., P.Y. Chuang, and H. Jonsson, 2013: Microphysical imprint of entrainment in warm cumulus. Tellus B. (accepted).
- Small, J.D., J. H. Jiang, H. Su, and C. Zhai, 2011: Relationship between aerosol and cloud fraction over Australia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L23802, doi:10.1029/2011GL049404.
- Small, J.D., P.Y. Chuang, G. Feingold, H. Jiang, 2009: Can aerosol decrease cloud lifetime? Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L16806, doi:10.1029/2009GL038888.
- Small, J.D., and P.Y. Chuang, 2008: New observations of precipitation initiation in warm cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 2972-2982, doi:10.1175/2008JAS2600.1.
- Chuang, P. Y., E. W. Saw, J. D. Small, R. A. Shaw, C.M. Sipperley, G. A. Payne, and W. D. Bachalo, 2008: Airborne phase Doppler interferometry for cloud microphysical measurements. Aerosol Sci. Tech., 42, 685-703.Rauber, R.M., B. Stevens, J. Davison, S. Göke, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, D. Rogers, P. Zuidema, H. T. Ochs III, C. Knight, J. Jensen, S. Bereznicki, S. Bordoni, H. Caro-Gautier, M. Colón-Robles, M. Deliz, S. Donaher, V. Ghate, E. Grzeszczak, C. Henry, A.M. Hertel, I. Jo, M. Kruk, J. Lowenstein, J. Malley, B. Medeiros, Y. Méndez-Lopez, S. Mishra, F. Morales-García, L. A. Nuijens, D. O’Donnell, D. L. Ortiz-Montalvo, K. Rasmussen, E. Riepe, S. Scalia, E. Serpetzoglou, H. Shen, M. Siedsma, J. Small, E. Snodgrass, P. Trivej, and J. Zawislak, 2007: In the driver’s seat–RICO and education. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 88(12), 1929-1937.
- Harnack, R. and J. Small, 2002: Identification and analysis of dry periods in New Jersey using the New Brunswick precipitation record. Bull. New Jersey Acad. Sci., 47(1), 1-6.
General research interests include the dynamics of large-scale atmosphere and ocean circulations and climate, with primary focus on (i) El Niño theory and predictability, (ii) theory and predictability of low frequency flow, and (iii) stochastic dynamics and ensemble-mean dynamics for scale interactions.
• Jin, F.-F., L.-L. Pan and M. Watanabe 2006: Dynamics of synoptic eddy and low-frequency flow (SELF) interaction. Part I: A closure. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1677-1694.
• Jin, F.-F. L.-L. Pan and M. Watanabe 2006: Dynamics of synoptic eddy and low-frequency flow (SELF) interaction. Part II: A theory for low frequency modes. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1695-1708.
• Burgers, G., F.-F. Jin, and G.J. Oldenborgh, 2005: The simplest ENSO recharge oscillator. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L13706, doi:10.1029/2005GL022951.
• Jin, F.-F., S. An, A. Timmermann, and J. Zhao, 2003: Strong El Niño events and nonlinear dynamical heating. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1120-1123, doi:10.1029/ 2002GL016356.
• Timmermann, A., and F.-F. Jin, 2002: Phytoplankton influences on tropical climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, doi:10.10129/2002GL15434.
• Jin F.-F., 2001: Low frequency modes of the tropic ocean dynamics. J. Climate, 14, 3872-3881.
• Jin F.-F., Z.-Z. Hu, M. Latif, L. Bengtsson and E. Roeckner, 2001: Dynamical and cloud-radiation feedbacks in El Niño and greenhouse warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1539-1542.
• Jin, F.-F.: 1997: An equatorial ocean recharge paradigm for ENSO Part I:
conceptual model. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 811-829.
• Jin, F-.F. 1996: Tropical ocean-atmosphere interaction, Pacific cold tongue, and El Niño Southern Oscillation. Science, 274, 76-78.
• Jin, F.-F., J. D. Neelin and M. Ghil, 1994: El Niño on the devil’s staircase: annual and subharmonic steps to chaos. Science, 264, 70-72.
As climate scientists, we are called to operate at the interface of the many disciplines of physical and life sciences, as well as of engineering and social sciences. Designing successful mitigation and adaptation strategies at regional and global scales depends strongly on understanding interannual-to-multidecadal climate variability as it interacts with long-term climate change. Hence, my work focuses on integrating earth and environmental science, engineering and social science in studies of large-scale climate mechanisms and their impacts on decadal to centennial time scales. Bridging basic, applied and the so-called “actionable” science has shaped my approach to answering the main questions that motivate my research: What are the mechanisms of the different “flavors” of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in past, present and future climates? What causes multidecadal persistence in tropical climate, and is it predictable? How do the tropics affect the extratropics at interannual and decadal time scales? How do large-scale climate mechanisms impact natural hazards (floods, sea level extremes, hurricanes) at multidecadal time scales? How can we learn from the past -using paleoclimate proxies and oral histories, among others- to inform the future? To answer these questions I use observational data and climate model experiments, as well as collaborate with paleoclimate scientists in field work aimed at developing new proxies of past variability of climate and water resources in the Pacific.
- C. Karamperidou, F.F. Jin, and J.L. Conroy, 2016: “The Importance of ENSO Nonlinearities in Tropical Pacic Response to External Forcing.”, accepted for publication, Clim. Dyn.
- F.S.R. Pausata, C. Karamperidou, R. Caballero and D.S. Batiste, 2016:”ENSO response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions: the role of the initial conditions”, Geophys. Res. Lets., 43(16), 8694–8702, doi:10.1002/2016GL069575
- C. Karamperidou, P.N. Di Nezio, A. Timmermann, F.-F. Jin, K.M. Cobb, 2015 : “The response of ENSO flavors to mid-Holocene climate: Implications for proxy interpretation”, Paleoceanography 30(5), 527-547
- K. Schollaen, C. Karamperidou, P. Krusic, E.R. Cook, G. Helle, 2015: ”ENSO flavors in a tree-ring δ18O record of Tectona grandis from Indonesia”, Climates of the Past 10, 3965-3987
- C. Karamperidou, M.A. Cane, U. Lall, A.T. Wittenberg, 2013: “Intrinsic modulation of ENSO predictability viewed through a local Lyapunov lens”, Climate Dynamics”, doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1759-z.
- C.Karamperidou, V. Engel, E. Stabenau, U. Lall and T. Smith III. 2013: ”Implications of multi-scale sea level and climate variability for coastal resources: a case study for south Florida and Everglades National Park, USA.”, Regional Environmental Change, doi: 1-.1007/s10113-013-0408-8
- C.Karamperidou, F. Cioffi, and U. Lall, 2012: ”Surface Temperature Gradients as Diagnostic Indicators of Midlatitude Circulation Dynamics”, J. Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI- D-11-00067.1.
- — D. Chavas, E. Yonekura, C. Karamperidou, N. Cavanaugh, K. Sherafin, ”US Hurricanes and economic damage: an extreme value perspective.”, Nat. Haz. Rev., doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000102
General research interests are in climate dynamics, atmosphere-ocean interactions, tropical meteorology, and numerical weather prediction. Current research topics include: (i) dynamics of tropical and mid-latitude intraseasonal oscillations; (ii) El Nino dynamics and monsoon-ENSO interaction; (iii) Pacific interdecadal oscillations; (iv) tropical cyclone genesis dynamics; (v) multi-scale interactions in the tropics; and (vi) future climate change and projection.
- Zhao, C.-B., T. Li, and T. Zhou, 2013: Precursor signals and processes associated with MJO initiation over the tropical Indian Ocean. J. Climate, 26, 291-307.
- Hsu, P.-C., and T. Li, 2012: Role of the boundary layer moisture asymmetry in causing the eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Climate, 25(14), 4914-4931.
- Li, T. 2012: Synoptic and climatic aspects of tropical cyclogenesis in Western North Pacific. Chapter 3 in Cyclones: Formation, Triggers and Control, K. Oouchi and H. Fudeyasu (eds.), Nova Science Publishers, Inc., p. 61-94.
- Wang, L., T. Li, and T. Zhou, 2012: Intraseasonal SST Variability and Air-Sea Interaction over Kuroshio Extension Region during Boreal Summer. J. Climate, 25, 1619–1634.
- Hsu, P.C., T. Li, and C.-H. Tsou, 2011: Interactions between boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations and synoptic-scale disturbances over the western North Pacific. Part I: Energetics diagnosis. J. Climate, 24, 927-941.
- Hsu, P.C., and T. Li, 2011: Interactions between boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations and synoptic-scale disturbances over the western North Pacific. Part II: Apparent heat and moisture sources and eddy momentum transport. J. Climate, 24, 942-961.
- Li, T., M. Kwon, M. Zhao, J. Kug, J. Luo, and W. Yu (2010), Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L21804, doi:10.1029/2010GL045124.
- Wu, B., T. Li, and T. Zhou, 2010: Asymmetry of atmospheric circulation anomalies over the western North Pacific between El Niño and La Niña. J. Climate, 23, 4807-4822.
- Li, T., 2010: Monsoon climate variabilities. In Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary? D.-Z. Sun and B. Frank (eds.), Geophys. Monogr. Ser., doi:10.1029/2008GM000782.
- Li, T., and C. Zhou, 2009: Planetary scale selection of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 2429-2443.
Alison D. Nugent
My primary research interests are in mountain meteorology, mesoscale meteorology, cloud physics, and cloud microphysics. In general, my research revolves around mountains and tropical clouds, and the initiation of precipitation. This includes dynamical studies of orographic precipitation, and microphysical studies of aerosol impacts on clouds, either from giant sea-salt nuclei, or accumulation mode aerosols. A running theme of my work is the inclusion of aircraft in situ measurements and numerical models, including fully coupled models like WRF, and manual models written from a set of equations.
- Jensen, J. B. and A. D. Nugent: The remarkable condensational growth of drops formed on giant sea-salt aerosol particles. In review in J. Atmos Sci.
- Nugent, A. D., C. D. Watson, and G. Thompson, R. B. Smith, 2016: Aerosol impacts on thermally driven orographic convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 3115-3132.
- Smith, R. B., A. D. Nugent, C. G. Kruse, D. C. Fritts, J. D. Doyle, S. D. Eckermann, M. J. Taylor, A. Doernbrack, M. Uddstrom, W. Cooper, P. Romashkin, J. B. Jensen, S. Beaton, 2015: Stratospheric Gravity Wave Fluxes and Scales during DEEPWAVE. J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 2851-2869.
- Fritts, D. C., R. B. Smith, M. J. Taylor, J. D. Doyle, S. D. Eckermann, A. Dörnbrack, M. Rapp, B. P. Williams, P.-D. Pautet, K. Bossert, N. R. Criddle, C. A. Reynolds, P. A. Reinecke, M. Uddstrom, M. J. Revell, R. Turner, B. Kaifler, J. S. Wagner, T. Mixa, C. G. Kruse, A. D. Nugent, C. D. Watson, S. Gisinger, S. M. Smith, R. S. Lieberman, B. Laughman, J. J. Moore, W. O. Brown, J. A. Haggerty, A. Rockwell, G. J. Stossmeister, S. F. Williams, G. Hernandez, D. J. Murphy, A. R. Klekociuk, I. M. Reid, J. Ma, 2015: The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE): An Airborne and Ground-Based Exploration of Gravity Wave Propagation and Effects from their Sources throughout the Lower and Middle Atmosphere. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 97, 425-453
- Watson, C. D., R. B. Smith, and A. D. Nugent, 2015: Processes controlling precipitation in shallow, orographic, trade-wind convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 3051–3072.
- Nugent, A. D., and R. B. Smith, 2014: Initiating convection in an inhomogeneous layer by uniform ascent. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 4597–4610.
- Nugent, A. D., J. R. Minder, and R. B. Smith, 2014: Wind speed control of tropical orographic convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 2695-2712.
- Minder, J. R., R. B. Smith, and A. D. Nugent, 2013: The dynamics of ascent-forced orographic convection in the tropics: results from Dominica. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 4067–4088.
- Smith, R. B., J. R. Minder, A. D. Nugent, T. Storelvmo, D. J. Kirshbaum, R. Warren, N. Lareau, P. Palany, A. James, and J. French, 2012: Orographic Precipitation in the Tropics: The Dominica Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 1567–1579.
My areas of expertise are climate dynamics, dynamic meteorology, tropical meteorology, and
geophysical fluid dynamics. Specific topics include: global monsoons; tropical intraseasonal
oscillation, El Nino-Southern Oscillation; climate variability; predictability and prediction;
climate changes; tropical cyclones; atmosphere-ocean interaction; and atmospheric waves and
instability. My research approaches involve theoretical analysis, numerical modeling, and
observational analyses with a focus on understanding of the fundamental physics governing
variations of weather and climate.
I have authored and co-authored more than 330 refereed papers, edited The Asian Monsoon Book, and authored or co-authored 20 book chapters. The total number of citation on these publications is over 28,000 (Google Scholar Citation) with an h-index of 92, and 88 papers have more than 100 citations each.
- Wang, B., F. Liu and G. Chen 2016: A trio‑interaction theory for Madden–Julian oscillation, Geosci. Lett. (2016) 3:34 DOI 10.1186/s40562-016-0066-z
- Wang, B., Xiang BQ, Li J, Webster PJ, Rajeevan MN, Liu J & Ha KJ, 2015: Rethinking Indian monsoon rainfall prediction in the context of recent global warming, Nature Communications, 6:7154 | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8154.
- Wang, B., J.-Y1038/nature11784.
- Wang, B., B. Xiang, and J.Y. Lee, 2013: Subtropical high predictability establishes a promising way for monsoon and tropical storm predictions. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.1212646110.
- Wang, B., J. Liu, H.J. Kim, P.J. Webster, S.Y. Yim, and B. Xiang, 2013: Northern hemisphere summer monsoon intensified by mega-ENSO and AMO. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. , doi:10.1073/pnas. 1219405110. Nature highlight. . Lee, and B. Xiang, 2014: Asian summer monsoon rainfall predictability: A predictable mode analysis. Climate Dyn., DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2218-1.
- Liu, J., B. Wang, M. Cane, S.-Y. Yim, and J.Y. Lee, 2013: Divergent global precipitation changes induced by natural versus anthropogenic forcing. Nature, 493 (7434), 656-659; doi:10.1038/nature11784.
- Wang, B., B. Xiang, and J.Y. Lee, 2013: Subtropical high predictability establishes a promising way for monsoon and tropical storm predictions. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.1212646110.
- Wang, B., J. Liu, H.J. Kim, P.J. Webster, S.Y. Yim, and B. Xiang, 2013: Northern hemisphere summer monsoon intensified by mega-ENSO and AMO. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. , doi:10.1073/pnas. 1219405110. Nature highlight.
- Wang, B., S. Xu, and L. Wu, 2012: Intensified Arabian Sea tropical storms, Nature, 489 (7416), doi:10.1038/nature11470.
The following is a list of selective publications with citation analysis based on Google
Scholar Citation up to February 2017 (as shown by the number in brackets).
- Wang, B., R. Wu, and X. Fu, 2000: Pacific-East Asia teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13, 1517-1536. (1355)
- Wang, B., 1995: Interdecadal changes in El Nino onset in the last four decades. J. Climate, 8, 267-258. (618)
- Wang, B., R. Wu, and K.-M. Lau, 2001: Interannual variability of Asian summer monsoon: Contrast between the Indian and western North Pacific-East Asian monsoons. J. Climate, 14, 4073-4090. (624)
- Wang, B., and L. Ho, 2002: Rainy seasons of the Asian-Pacific monsoon. J. Climate, 15,
- 386-398. (761)
- Wang, B. and Z. Fan, 1999: Choice of the South Asian summer monsoon indices, Bull. American Metorol. Soc. 80(4) 629-638 (553)
- Wang, B., and H. Rui, 1990a: Synoptic climatology of transient tropical intraseasonal convection anomalies. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 44(1-4), 43-61. (441)
- Wang, B., and J. C. L. Chan, 2002: How strong ENSO events affect tropical storm activity over the Western North Pacific. J. Climate, 15, 1643-1658. (578)
- Wang, B., R. Wu, T. Li, 2003: Atmosphere-Warm Ocean interaction and its impact on Asian-Australian Monsoon variation. J. Climate, 16, 1195-1211. (410)
- Wang, B., Q. Ding, X. Fu, I.-S. Kang, K. Jin, J. Shukla, and F. Doblas-Reyes, 2005: Fundamental challenges in simulation and prediction of summer monsoon rainfall. Geophys Resear Letters 32 (15).(407)
- Ding, Q. and B. Wang, 2005: Circumglobal teleconnection in Northern Hemisphere summer, J. Climate, 18(17), 3483-3505 (371).
- Wang, B. and X. Xie, 1997: A model for the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci. 54(1), 72-86 (273).
My research interests are primarily in atmospheric dynamics and physics, tropical meteorology, tropical cyclones, very high-resolution dynamical downscaling, regional climate studies and modeling, and development of high-resolution atmospheric and coupled ocean-atmospheric models for both tropical cyclone and regional climate studies. Recent research areas include: tropical cyclone genesis, rapid intensification, and structure and intensity changes; seasonal, interannual, and decadal variations of western North Pacific tropical cyclones; regional climate modeling and process studies; and impacts of global change on regional climate with the focus on the extreme weather and climate events (floods, droughts, heat waves, tropical cyclones, etc.) using the nested regional climate model and the coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model.
- Cha, D.-H., and Y. Wang, 2013: A dynamical initialization scheme for real-time forecasts of tropical cyclones using the WRF model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 964-986.
- Zhang, C.-X., Y. Wang, A. Lauer, and K. Hamilton, 2012: Configuration and evaluation of the WRF model for the study of Hawaiian regional climate. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 3259-3277.
- Zhan, R., and Y. Wang, 2012: Contribution of tropical cyclones to stratosphere-troposphere exchange over the Northwest Pacific: An estimation based on AIRS and reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmosphere, 117, D12112, doi:10.1029/2012JD017494.
- Qi, L., and Y. Wang, 2012: The remote effect of mesoscale mountain over East Indochina Peninsula on East Asian summer rainfall. J. Climate, 25, 4495-4510.
- Murakami, H., Y. Wang, M. Sugi, H. Yoshimura, R. Mizuta, E. Shindo, Y. Adachi, S. Yukimoto, M. Hosaka, A. Kitoh, T. Ose, S. Kusunoki, 2012: Future changes in tropical cyclone activity projected by the new high-resolution MRI-AGCM. J. Climate, 25, 3237-3260.
- Fudeyasu, H., and Y. Wang, 2011: Balanced contribution to the intensification of a tropical cyclone simulated in TCM4: Outer core spin-up process. J. Atmos. Sci. 68, 430-449.
- Xu, J., and Y. Wang, 2010: Sensitivity of the simulated tropical cyclone inner-core size to the initial vortex size. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 4135-4157.
- Wang, Y., and J. Xu, 2010: Energy production, frictional dissipation, and maximum intensity of a numerically simulated tropical cyclone. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 97-116.
- Wang, Y., 2009: How do outer spiral rainbands affect tropical cyclone structure and intensity? J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 1250-1273.
- Fudeyasu, H., Y. Wang, M. Satoh, T. Nasuno, H. Miura, and W. Yanase, 2008: Global cloud-system-resolving model NICAM successfully simulated the lifecycles of two real tropical cyclones. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22808, doi:10.1029/2008GL036003.
- Wang, Y., 2008: Structure and formation of an annular hurricane simulated in a fully-compressible, nonhydrostatic model – TCM4, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 1505-1527.
- Wang, Y., 2008: Rapid filamentation zone in a numerically simulated tropical cyclone. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 1158-1181.
- Wang, Y., 2007: A multiply nested, movable mesh, fully compressible, nonhydrostatic tropical cyclone model – TCM4: Model description and development of asymmetries without explicit asymmetric forcing. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 97, 93-116.
- Wang, Y., L. Zhou, and K.P. Hamilton, 2007: Effect of convective entrainment/detrainment on simulation of tropical precipitation diurnal cycle. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 367-385.
- Wang, Y., and L. Zhou, 2005: Observed trends in extreme precipitation events in China during 1961-2001 and the associated changes in large-scale circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(9), L09707, doi:10.1029/2005GL022574.
- Wang, Y., S.-P. Xie, B. Wang, and H. Xu, 2005: Large-scale atmospheric forcing by Southeast Pacific boundary-layer clouds: A regional model study. J. Climate, 18, 934-951.
- Xu, H., Y. Wang, and S.-P. Xie, 2004: Effects of the Andes on eastern Pacific climate: A regional atmospheric model study. J. Climate, 17, 589-602.
- Wang, Y., 2002: Vortex Rossby waves in a numerically simulated tropical cyclone. Part I: Overall structure, potential vorticity and kinetic energy budgets. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 1213-1238.
My research interests include physics, chemistry and atmospheric impacts of aerosol. My particular interest is in numerical modeling of formation and evolution of stratospheric and tropospheric aerosols associated with gas-to-particle conversion. Current research focuses on simulating size distribution, concentration, mass and surface area as well as radiative properties of volcanic aerosol clouds following major eruptions. These clouds are responsible for global stratospheric ozone depletion and some important climate consequences.
• Turco, R.P., J.-X. Zhao, and Fangqun Yu, 1998: A new source of tropospheric aerosols: Ion-ion recombination. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 635-638.
• Self, S., M. R. Kampino, J. Zhao, and M.G. Katz, 1997: Volcanic aerosol perturbations and strong El Niño events: No general correlation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1247-1250.
• Zhao, J., R.P. Turco, 1995: Nucleation simulations in the wake of a jet aircraft in stratospheric flight. J. Aerosol Sci., 26, 779.
• Zhao, J., R.P. Turco, and O.B. Toon, 1995: A model simulation of Pinatubo volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 7315-7328.
• Zhao, J., O.B. Toon, and R.P. Turco, 1995: Origin of condensation nuclei in spring polar stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 5215-5227.
Cooperating Graduate Faculty
My research interests center around understanding the mechanisms responsible for the mean, intraseasonal, and interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon, and elucidating the role of El Niño-induced regional SST anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean on local and remote climate variability. Towards these goals, I diagnose a variety of observational/analyzed data sets to develop hypotheses and then use a range of models (simple linear model to GCMs) to understand the processes involved. Recent projects also include understanding the response of the monsoon and Indian Ocean climate system to global warming.
• Annamalai, H., K.P. Hamilton, and K.R. Sperber, 2007: South Asian Summer Monsoon and its relationship with ENSO in the IPCC AR4 Simulations. J. Climate, 20, 1071-1092.
• Annamalai, H., H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe, 2007: Possible role of Indian Ocean SST on Northern Hemisphere Circulation during El Niño. J. Climate, 20, 3164-3189.
• Annamalai, H., P. Liu, and S.P. Xie, 2005: Southwest Indian Ocean SST variability: Its local effect and remote influence on Asian Monsoons. J. Climate, 18, 4150-4167.
• Annamalai, H., J. Potemra, R. Murtugudde, and J.P. McCreary, 2005: Effect of preconditioning on the extreme climate events in the tropical Indian Ocean. J. Climate, 18, 3450-3469.
• Annamalai, H., and K.R. Sperber, 2005: Regional heat sources and the Active and Break phases of boreal summer intraseasonal (30-50 day) variability. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2726-2748.
• Annamalai, H., and P. Liu, 2005: Response of the Asian summer monsoon to changes in El Niño properties. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 805-831.
• Annamalai, H., S.P. Xie, J.P. McCreary, and R. Murtugudde, 2005: Impact of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature on developing El Niño. J. Climate, 18, 302-319.
• Annamalai, H., and R. Murtugudde, 2004: Role of the Indian Ocean in regional climate variability. Earth’s Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere interaction. Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 147, American Geophysical Union, p. 213-246.
• Annamalai, H., R. Murtugudde, J. Potemra, S.-P. Xie, P. Liu, and B. Wang, 2003: Coupled dynamics over the Indian Ocean: Spring initiation of the zonal mode. Deep Sea Res. II, 50, 2305-2330.
• Xie, S.P., H. Annamalai, F. Schott, and J.P. McCreary, 2002: Structure and mechanism for south Indian Climate variability. J. Climate, 15, 864-878.
My research interests include mesoscale numerical weather prediction and data assimilation. I have primarily focused on improving prediction of atmospheric optical turbulence for the astronomy community at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A second research focus is assimilation of level two hyperspectral satellite data.
- Businger, S. and T. Cherubini 2011: Seeing Clearly – The impact of Atmospheric Turbulence on the Propagation of Extraterrestrial Radiation. VWB Publishing
- James Foster, John Kealy, Tiziana Cherubini, Steven Businger, Zhong Lu, Michael Murphy, 2013: The Utility of Atmospheric Analyses for the Mitigation of Artifacts in InSAR. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50093.
- Cherubini, T. and S. Businger 2013: Another Look at the Refractive Index Structure Function. J. of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 52, 498-506
- Cherubini, T., S. Businger 2010: An operational perspective for modeling optical turbulence. Included in the Book “Seeing Clearly: The impact of Atmospheric Turbulence on the Propagation of Extraterrestrial Radiation”. VWB Publishing
- Cherubini, T., S. Businger, and R. Lyman, 2008: Modeling turbulence and seeing over Mauna Kea: Algorithm Refinement. J. of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47, 3033-3043.
- Cherubini, T., S. Businger, and R. Lyman, and M. Chun, 2008: Modeling turbulence and seeing over Mauna Kea. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47, 1040-1155.
- Foster, J., B. Brooks, T. Cherubini, C. Shacat, S. Businger, and C. L. Werner, 2006, Mitigating atmospheric noise for InSAR using a high resolution weather model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16304, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026781.
- Cherubini, T., S. Businger, C. Velden and R. Okasawara, 2006: The Impact of Satellite-Derived Atmospheric Motion Vectors on Mesoscale Forecasts over Hawaii. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2009-2020.
- Ferretti, R., T. Paolucci, G. Giuliani, and T. Cherubini, 2003: Verification of high-resolution real-time forecasts over the Alpine region during the MAP SOP. Q. J. R. Meteorological Soc., 129, 587-607.
- Cherubini, T., A. Ghelli and F. Lalaurette, 2001: Verification of precipitation forecasts over the Alpine region using an high-density observing network. Weather and Forecasting, 17, 238-249.
John N. Porter
Atmospheric aerosols affect a variety of processes including climate change, human health, satellite retrievals of surface properties, cloud microphysical properties, and atmospheric chemistry. Our research has employed lidar, satellite and sun-sky radiance measurements to study aerosols and their direct and indirect effects. Custom instrumentation and software is often used in these efforts to allow for improvements in measurement technology. One of our most recent efforts will involve the use of a state–of–the–art scanning lidar to measure three dimensional wind fields within the boundary layer.
• Lienert, B.R., J.N. Porter and S.K. Sharma, 2003: Aerosol size distributions from genetic inversion of polar nephelometer data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 20, 1403-1410.
• Porter, J.N., S.K. Sharma, B. R. Lienert, E. Lau and K. Horton, 2003: Vertical and horizontal aerosol scattering fields over Bellows Beach, Oahu during the SEAS Experiment. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech, 20, 1375-1387.
• Porter, J.N., K. Horton, P. Mouginis-Mark, B. Lienert, E. Lau, S.K. Sharma, J. Sutton, T. Elias, and C. Oppenheimer, 2002: Lidar and sun photometer measurements of the Hawaii Pu‘u O‘o Volcano plume: Estimates of SO2 and aerosol flux rates and SO2 lifetimes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 2002GL014744.
• Porter, J.N., B. Lienert, S.K. Sharma, and H.W. Hubble, 2002: A Small Portable Mie-Rayleigh Lidar System to Measure Aerosol Optical and Spatial Properties, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 19, 1873-1877.
• Porter, J., M. Miller, C., Pietras, and C. Motell, 2001: Ship-Based Sun Photometer Measurements Using Microtops Sun Photometers, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 18, 765-774.
• Porter, J.N., B. Lienert, and S.K. Sharma, 2000: Using the horizontal and slant lidar calibration methods to obtain aerosol scattering coefficients from a coastal lidar in Hawaii. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 17, 1445-1454.
• Porter, J.N., and A. Clarke, 1997: An aerosol size distribution model based on in-situ measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 6035-6045
• Clarke, A., J.N. Porter, F. Valero, and P. Pilewskie, 1996: Vertical profiles, aerosol microphysics, and optical closure during the Atlantic stratocumulus transition experiment: Measured and modeled column optical properties, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 4443-4453.
• Porter, J.N., A. Clarke, G. Ferry, and R. Pueschel, 1992: Aircraft studies of size-dependent aerosol sampling through inlets. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 3815-3824.
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