A Compendium of Geochemistry: From Solar Nebula to the Human Brain

by Yuan-Hui Li
email: yhli@soest.hawaii.edu
Princeton University Press (2000) 475pp.

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Chapter I. Atoms, nuclei, and energy

Table I-01 (page 4). A) Periodic Table; and B) Some atomic properties of the elements.

Table I-2 (21). Heats of sublimation and boiling points of the elements.

Table I-3 (25). Electron binding energy to cation and average electron binding energy.

Table I-4 (29). Ionic radii for six-fold coordination.

Table I-5 (30). Electron configurations of transition metal cations in octahedral coordination.

Table I-6 (36). Electric polarizability.

Table I-7 (38). Relative polarizability for B-type and transition metal cations.

Table I-8a (40). Electronegativities of metal cations and nonmetal ions.

Table I-9 (41). Electronegativities of cations calculated by equations I-3b and I-3c for halides, oxides, sulfides, and selenides.

Table I-10 (46). Crystal lattice energies of oxides per one oxygen as calculated by the Bonn-Haber cycle.

Table I-11 (49). First hydrolysis constants of cations at 25C and I=0.

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Chapter II. The solar nebula and nucleosynthesis

Table II-1 (56).Chemical compositions of the primitive carbonaceous chondrites (C1) and the solar atmosphere.

Table II-2a (64). Four fundamental forces and their carrier particles.

Table II-2b (65). Some physical properties of quarks, baryons, mesons, and leptons.

Table II-3 (78). Nucleosynthesis of a 25 solar-mass population I star.

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Chapter III. Structure and chemistry of the solar system

Table III-1 (87). Properties of three largest asteroids.

Table III-2 (95). Percentages of various meteoritic classes (top row) and of spectral types of asteroids in each given asteroid belt or family.

Table III-3 (98). Compositions of comet Halley particles, interplanetary dust particles (IDP), and type one carbonaceous chondrite (solar nebula) as normalized to Al=10 atoms.

Table III-4a (100). Orbital and physical parameters of the Sun and nine planets.

Table III-4b (101). Orbital and physical parameters of satellites.

Table III-5 (112). The 50% condensation temperature of the elementsat two different total pressure, and their major condensed forms and host phase.

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Chapter IV. Distribution of elements in meteorites

Table IV-1 (120). Classification of chondrites and achondrites.

Table IV-2 (122). Classification of iron meteorites and metal phase in stony-irons.

Table IV-3 (124). Some criteria for petrologic types of chondrite subclasses.

Table IV-4 (128). Enrichment factors relative to CI for Kakangari chondrite and the primitive achondrites.

Table IV-5 (128). Meteorite classes found (excluding Antarctic) and those recovered shortly after their fall.

Table IV-6 (134). Average composition of chondrites.

Table IV-7 (139). Classification of elements according to their enrichment factors relative to CI in various chondritic subclasses along with the 50% condensation temperature from Table III-5.

Table IV-8a (145). Concentrations of elements in various mineral phases of the ordinary.

Table IV-8b (147). Concentrations of elements in the metal phase of average L chondrites, and metal and troilite phases of the iron meteorite Cape York (IIIAB).

Table IV-8c (148). Concentrations of elements in bulk samples of five enstatite chondrites (EH), Indarch (EH4), and Abee (EH4); and in their metal, sulfide, and oldhamite (CaS) phases.

Table IV-9 (155). A) Relative abundance of major components, and B) relative abundance of various chondrule types in chondrites (all in volume %).

Table IV-10 (157). Average compositions, percent standard deviations (parentheses), and the enrichment factor for matrix+rim materials from carbonaceous chondrite subclasses.

Table IV-11 (159). Average compositions of the bulk Allende (CV3), Semarkona (LL3) and Qingzhen (EH3) and their chondrules; and the enrichment factors of elements for chondrules relative to CI.

Table IV-12 (163). Average compositions of bulk chondrules; and olivine, low-Ca pyroxene and mesostasis (glass) from chondrules of Allende (CV), Semarkona (LL3) and Qingzhen (EH3).

Table IV-13 (173). Average compositions of whole rock (WR), matrix, chondrules (chon.) and CAI (groups I to III) from Allende (CV3).

Table IV-14 (178). A) Mineral compositions of Fremdlinge Willy, Zelda, and A37A from Allende(CV3); and B) Average chemical compositions of Willy, A37A, and Zelda.

Table IV-15 (180). Compositions of achondrites Juvinas (eucrite), Johnstown (diogenite) and Kenna (ureilite).

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Chapter V. Igneous rocks and the composition of the earth

Table V-1a (204). Mineral distribution coefficients of various cations in alkali-basalt suite of Massif Central, France.

Table V-1b (205). Selected mineral distribution coefficients of REE in basaltic rocks (B), rhyolitic rocks (R); and in high-silica rhyolite (H).

Table V-2 (212). Concentrations of elements in the Earth's primitive mantle, and the enrichment factors relative to the carbonaceous chondrite CI.

Table V-3 (218). Fractions of refractory siderophile element in the Earth's core and distribution coefficients in various systems.

Table V-4a (222). Average compositions of basalts (B), granites (G), and the Earth's upper crust.

Table V-4b (226). Average compositions of juvenile upper continental crusts as a function of age, and the present-day average composition of the upper continental crust.

Table V-5 (227). Average compositions of the mixture of 2/3B+1/3G, island arc andesites, Archean upper crust.

Table V-6 (238). Isotopic ratios of chondritic Earth at present time (p) and 4.57 billion years ago (E) along with the half-life of radioactive parent (A). *B is the radiogenic isotope and B is its non-radiogenic isotope.

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Chapter VI. Weathering and sedimentary rocks

Table VI-1 (257). Chemical compositions of A) the weathered latite soil profile from Kiama, Australia, and B) the saprolite soil profile from Kauai Island, Hawaii.

Table VI-2 (259). Compositions of residual deposits (saprolite and bauxite) and their parental rocks (basalt and nepheline syenite), and the enrichment factors of elements in the residual deposits relative to their parental rocks.

Table VI-3 (264). Classification of selected sedimentary rocks.

Table VI-4 (269). Average compositions of major sedimentary rock types and their mass-weighted average.

Table VI-5a (274). Compositions of average shale, and its related materials.

Table VI-5b (280). Enrichment factors for rare earth elements relative to the average upper crust.

Table VI-6 (281). Average compositions of different types of shale in the Pierre Shale Members.

Table VI-7 (284). Average compositions of cratonic shales, the enrichment factors of elements for shales relative to juvenile upper continental crusts of the same age, and enrichment factor [phanerozoic shale/average present-day upper continental crust].

Table VI-8 (287). Compositions of sandstone and limestone geostandards.

Table VI-9 (290). Compositions of average Algoma and Lake Superior type iron formations(IF), iron formation Geostandard (IF-G), Brockman IF from Australia; and REE data from IF Geostandard (FeR-1), and Penge (PE-71) and Kuruman (KK-11) IF from South Africa (all in ppm).

Table VI-10 (294). Concentrations of the elements in the world average river water and river suspended particles.

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Chapter VII. Distribution of elements in the ocean

Table VII-1 (304). Average concentrations of elements in the surface and deep waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and in the whole ocean

Table VII-2 (313). Types of concentration profiles, and major chemical speciations of the elements in the ocean.

Table VII-3 (318). Average composition of marine algae, phytoplankton, and zooplankton.

Table VII-4 (326). A) Compositions of zooplankton euphausiid, its excreted fecal pellets and shale; B) Vertical fluxes of various materials obtained from sediment traps at various depths in the Japan Sea; and C) Compositions of sediment trap materials obtained at depth 890 m and 3240 m, and the bottom sediments from the Japan Sea.

Table VII-5 (329). Average compositions of major marine sediments.

Table VII-6 (331). Compositions of various marine sediments, manganese nodules, manganese crust, and phosphorite.

Table VII-7 (349). Concentrations of elements in the Hanging Garden hydrothermal vent at 21N and comparisons with those in seawater (Table VII-1), the mid oceanic ridge basalts (Table V-5), and river water (Table VI-9).

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Chapter VIII. Biosphere and Homo sapiens

Table VIII-1 (358). Elemental compositions of various biological standard referencematerials.

Table VIII-2 (365). Major carbon reservoirs on the Earth's surface.

Table VIII-3a (366). Fresh weight of various human organs in reference man; and percentages of dry and ash weight in each organ.

Table VIII-3b (367). Elemental compositions of various human organs and the calculated total soft tissue.

Table VIII-4 (371). Elemental compositions of the reference man and related organic samples.

Table VIII-5 (377). Compositions of various coals, crude oils, and organic rich shales.

Table VIII-6 (381). Elemental concentrations in different specific gravity fractions of Illinois coal divided by those of the bulk coal.

Table VIII-7 (385). Concentrations of trace elements in three major components of Crude Oil C-1 and in various molecular weight fractions of each major components.

Table VIII-8 (388). Compositions of coal, slag, inlet fly ash (in), and outlet fly ashes (out) from Thomas Allen steam plant, and logarithm of various ratios.

Table VIII-9 (394). Partition of elements between gas and glass phases [log (gas/glass)], and major species in gas and glass phases during the burning of average coal at 1500 C and one bar pressure.

Table VIII-10 (397). Logarithm of enrichment factors of excess elements, log Ex, in volcanic gas relative to volcanic rocks.

Table VIII-11 (401). Sea-salts corrected compositions of Antarctic and Arctic atmospheres, and logarithm of enrichment factors of excess elements (log Ex) normalized by Sc and average crust.

Table VIII-12 (409). Average deposition rates of ions into the Mississippi river basin from rainwater during the year 1987; river fluxes of ions from the Mississippi river basin (1987 and 1905); and various pollution inputs.

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Appendix Tables

Appendix Table 1 (415). Ionization energies and electron affinity of the elements at 0K.

Appendix Table 2 (418). Abundance of the nuclides.

Appendix Table 3(424). Some minerals found in meteorites.

Appendix Table 4 (426). Common minerals in igneous rocks and possible association of trace elements with major cations of minerals.

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Errata for A Compendium of Geochemistry: From the Solar Nebula to the Human Brain
(line, eqn., Table, Figure, etc)

5 (table I-1b)



23 (2nd eqn.)



30 (table I-5)

Too many "arrow" symbols

Delete one "arrow " each from high spin eg column at row 3 and 4.

32 (1st eqn.)


Delete "e2" from eqn.

41 (table I-9)



42 (fig. I-17, y axis)



49 (2nd eqn.)


Delete "*"

84 (9)



103 (9)



105 (fig. III-8, y axis)

Area density

Area loading

119 (2nd paragraph, 7)



119 (bottom 3)



121 (table IV-1, notes)

fo = fosterite

fo = forsterite

147 (table IV-8b, bottom 4)



149 (fig. IV-10, caption)



157 (table IV-10)


Note: concentrations in weight %




165 (3)



172 (16)



172 (bottom 8)



178 (table IV)

Os nuggests

Os nuggets

213 (table V-2, bottom 1)



218 (table V-3, bottom 2)

liquid mental

liquid metal

226 (table V-4b)


Note: oxides in weight % and elements in ppm

230 (table V-5)


Note: concentrations in ppm unless indicated otherwise in the first column

242 (16)



245 (10)



260 (17)



264 (table VI-3)



282 (fig. VI-13, caption)

Pirre shale

Pierre shale

308 (fig. VII-1, caption)

low; high

high; low

356 (fig.VIII-1b, y axis)



372 (table VIII-4, last column )

2.6 (for Sr)


380 (fig. VIII-11, caption)



398 (fig. VIII-18a and b)

Redundant Se

Delete one "Se"

399 (fig. VIII-19b)

Redundant Se

Delete one "Se"

426 ( right column 1st row)

NaAlSi2O8; CaAl2Si3O8


429 (bottom12)



438 (bottom 15)



451 (botom 6)



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