7fcde7 square The Department of Oceanography at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, SOEST
Yuan-Hui Li

Emeritus Professor

Department of Oceanography, 
University of Hawai`i at Manoa, 
1000 Pope Road, 
Marine Sciences Building, 
Honolulu, HI 96822

Phone: (720) 389-6858
E-mail: yhli@soest.hawaii.edu

 

 

Education

  • BA 1959- National Taiwan University- Geology
  • PhD 1967- Columbia University- Geochemistry

Research Interests

A Compendium of Geochemistry: from Solar Nebula to the Human Brain, Princeton University Press (2000) 475p.

Data Tables & Errata Sheet

Teaching Activities

  • OCN 635- Isotopic Marine Geochemistry
  • OCN 642- Elemental Composition Changes
  • OCN 643- Thermodynamics for Geochemistry
  • OCN 699, 700, 800- Directed, Thesis, and Dissertation Research

Bibliography

Ph. D. Thesis

  • Li, Y. H., (1967), <em>The Degree of Saturation of CaCO3 in the Oceans</em>, Columbia University, pp176; Thesis advisers: Wallace S. Broecker and Taro Takahashi.

Books

  • Li, Y. H. (2000), A Compendium of Geochemistry : Elemental Composition Changes from Solar Nebula to the Human Brain. Princeton University Press, pp 475
  • Li, Y. H. and C. P. Li, (2000), The Peacock of the North Wall Mansion: Grandma Liu’s Story, (Chinese with English translation by G. Roth Li), Culture Center of Hsinchu City, Taiwan, pp 174.

Chapters in Books

  • Li, Y. H. and W. S. Moore, (1966), Alkalinity of seawater, in The Encyclopedia of Oceanography, ed. R. W. Fairbridge, Reinhold, New York, p29.
  • Broecker, W. S., Y. H. Li and T. H. Peng, (1971), Carbon dioxide ­ Man's unseen artifact, in Impingement of Man on the Oceans, ed. D.W. Hood, John Wiley & Sons, 287-324.
  • Santschi, P., W. S. Broecker, Y. H. Li, S. Carson, J. Bell, C. Morrison and E. Davie, (1978), Radioactive and stable metals in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, in Natural Radiation Environment III, DOE Symposium Series 51, 514-528.
  • Santschi, P. H., S. Carson and Y. H. Li, (1982), Natural radionuclides as tracers of geochemical processes in MERL microcosms and Narragansett Bay, in Marine Mesocosms ‑ Biological and Chemical Research in Experimental Ecosystems.  eds. G.D. Grice and M.R. Reeve, Springer-Verlag, 97-109.
  • Santschi, P. H., and Y. H. Li, (1982), Removal Pathways of Th and Pu isotopes in coasral marine environments, in Natural Radiation Environment, eds. KG Vohra, UC Misha, KC Pillai, S Sadasivan, Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi.
  • Simpson, H. J., R. M. Trier, Y. H. Li and R. F. Anderson, (1984), Field experiment determinations of distribution coefficients of actinide elements in alkaline lake environments, in NRC Nuclear Waste Geochemistry '83, eds. D.H. Alexander and G.F. Birchard, 336‑342.
  • Santschi, P. H., U. P. Nyffeler, Y. H. Li and P. O'Hara, (1986), Radionuclide cycling in natural waters: relevance of sorption kinetics, in Sediments and Water Interactions, ed. P. G. Sly, Springer-Verlag, 183-191.
  • Drever, J. I., Y. H. Li and J. B. Maynard, (1988), Geochemical cycles: The continental crust and the oceans, in Chemical Cycles in the Evolution of the Earth, eds. C. B. Gregor, R. M. Garrels, F. T. Mackenzie and J.B. Maynard, Springer-Verlag, 17-54.
  • Li, Y. H. and J. Schoonmaker, (2003), Chemical composition and mineralogy of marine sediments, in Sediments, Daigenesis, and Sedimentary Rocks (ed. F. T. Mackenzie) Vol. 7, Treatise on Geochemistry (eds. H.D. Holland and K. K. Turekian), Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, 1-35.

Articles

  • Li, Y.H. (1967a), Equation of state of water and sea water, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 2665-2678.
  • Broecker, W. S., Y. H. Li and J. Cromwell, (1967b), Radium‑226 and Radon‑222 concentration in Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Science 158, 1307-1310.
  • Broecker, W. S., J. Cromwell and Y. H. Li, (1968), Rates of vertical eddy diffusion near the ocean floor based on measurements of the distribution of excess Rn‑222, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 5, 101-105.
  • Takahashi, T., W.S. Broecker, Y. H. Li and D. Thurber, (1968), Chemical and isotopic balances for a meromictic lake, Limnol. Oceanogr.13, 272-292.
  • Li, Y. H., J. Bischoff and G. Mathieu, (1969a), The migration of Mn in the Arctic Basin sediment, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 7, 265-270.
  • Li, Y. H., T. Takahashi and W. S. Broecker, (1969b), The degree of saturation of CaCO3 in the ocean, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 5507-5525.
  • Li, Y. H., T. L. Ku and G. G. Mathieu, (1970), The CO2‑CaCO3 system in the Antarctic as related to the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Antarctic J. U.S. 4, 190.
  • Ku, T. L., Y. H. Li, G. G. Mathieu and H. K. Wong, (1970), Radium in the Indian‑Antarctic Ocean south of Australia, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5286-5292.
  • Broecker, W. S. and Y. H. Li, (1970), Interchange of water between the major oceans. J. Geophys, Res. 75, 3545-3552.
  • Takahashi, T., R. F. Weiss, C. H. Culberson, J. M. Edmond, D. E. Hammond, C. S. Wong, Y. H. Li and A. E. Bainbridge, (1970), A carbonate chemistry profile at the 1969‑GEOSECS Intercalibration Station in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 7648-7666.
  • Li, Y. H. and T. F. Tsui, (1971), The solubility of CO2 in water and sea water, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4203-4207.
  • Li, Y. H. (1972), Geochemical mass balance among lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, Am. J. Sci. 272, 119-137.
  • Li, Y. H. (1973a), Vertical eddy diffusion in Lake Zurich, Schweiz Z. Hydrol 35(1), 1-7.
  • Li, Y. H., T. L. Ku, G. G. Mathieu and K. Wolgemuth, (1973b), Barium in the Antarctic Ocean and implications regarding the marine geochemistry of Ba and 226Ra, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 19, 352-358.
  • Li, Y. H. and S. Gregory, (1974a), Diffusion of ions in seawater and deep sea sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38, 708-714.
  • Li, Y. H. and P. Erni, (1974b), Factor analysis and geochemical mass balance of the Rhein and upper Rhone rivers, Vom Wasser 43, 15-42 (in German with English abstract).
  • Li, Y. H. (1976a), Denudation of Taiwan Island since the Pliocene epoch, Geology 4, 105-170.
  • Li, Y. H. (1976b), The population growth and the environmental problems in Taiwan ‑ a case study, Environmental Conservation 3, 171-178.
  • Broecker, W. S., T. Takahashi and Y. H. Li, (1976), Hydrography of the central Atlantic I, Deep Sea Res. 23, 1083-1104.
  • Li, Y. H. and M. T. Huang, (1977a), The population growth and the environmental problems in Taiwan, Mining Technology (Taiwan) 15(2), 51‑73 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Li, Y. H. (1977b), Confusion of the mathematical notation for defining the residence time, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 555-556.
  • Li, Y. H., G. Mathieu, P. Biscaye and J.J. Simpson, (1977c), The flux of 226Ra from estuarine and continental shelf sediments, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 37, 237-241.
  • Peng, T. H., Y. H. Li and F. T. Wu, (1977d), Tectonic uplift rates of the Taiwan island since the early Holocene, Memoir of the Geological Society of China, No. 2, 57-69.
  • Bower, P. M., H. J. Simpson, S. C. Williams and Y. H. Li, (1978), Trace metals in the sediments of Foundry Cove, Cold Spring, New York, Environ. Sci. Technol. 12, 683-687.
  • Li, Y. H., H. W. Feely and P. Santschi, (1979a), 228Th‑228Ra radioactive disequilibrium in the New York Bight and its implication for coastal pollution, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 42, 13-26.
  • Li, Y. H. and L. H. Chan, (1979b), Desorption of Ba and 226Ra from river‑borne sediments in the Hudson estuary, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 43, 343-350
  • Peng, T. H., W. S. Broecker, G. Mathieu, Y. H. Li and A. E. Bainbridge, (1979), Radon evasion rates in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as determined during the GEOSECS Program, J. Geophys. Res.14, 2471-2486.
  • Santschi, P. H., Y. H. Li and J. Bell, (1979), Natural radionuclides in the water of Narragansett Bay, Earth Planet, Sci. Lett. 45, 201-213.
  • Li, Y. H., H. W. Feely and R. Toggweiler, (1980a), 228Ra and 228Th concentrations of GEOSECS Atlantic surface waters, Deep Sea Res. 27A, 545-555.
  • Santschi, P. H., Y. H. Li, J. Bell, B. Trier and K. Kowtaluk, (1980b), Pu in the coastal marine environment, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 51, 248-265.
  • Olsen, C. R., P. H. Biscaye, H. J. Simpson, R. M. Trier, N. Kostyk, R. B. Bopp, Y. H. Li and H. Feely, (1980), Reactor‑released radionuclides and fine‑grained sediment transport and accumulation patterns in Barnegat Bay, N.J., and adjacent shelf water, Estuar. Coast. Mar. Sci. 10, 119.
  • Santschi, P. H., Y. H. Li and S. Carson, (1980), The fate of trace metals in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: Radiotracer experiments in microcosms, Estuar. Coast. Mar. Sci. 10, 635-654.
  • Santschi, P. H., M. Amdurer, D. Adler, Y. H. Li and J. Bell, (1980), Thorium isotopes as analogues for "particle reactive" pollutants in coastal marine environments, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 47, 327-335.
  • Moor, W. S., Y. H. Li and H. W. Feely, (1980), Radium isotopes in subarctic waters, Earth Planet, Sci. Lett. 49, 329-340.
  • Li, Y. H. (1981a), Geochemical cycles of elements and human perturbation, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45, 2073-2084.
  • Li, Y. H., P. H. Santschi, A. Kaufman, L. R. Benninger and H. W. Feely, (1981b), Natural radionuclides in waters of the New York Bight, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 55, 217-228.
  • Li, Y. H. (1981c), Ultimate removal mechanisms of elements from the oceans, Geochim, Cosmochim. Acta 45, 1659-1664.
  • Kaufman, A., Y. H. Li and K. K. Turekian, (1981), The removal rates of 234Th and 228Th from waters of the New York Bight, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 54, 385-392.
  • Bopp, R. F., P. H. Santschi, Y. H. Li and B. L. Deck, (1981), Gas exchange and biodegradation of gaseous alkanes in model estuarine ecosystems, Org. Geochem. 3, 9-14.
  • Li, Y. H. (1982a), Ultimate removal mechanisms of elements from the ocean (Reply to a comment by Whitfield and Turner), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46, 1993-1995.
  • Li, Y. H. (1982b), Interelement relationships in oceanic pelagic clays and manganese nodules, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46, 1053-1060.
  • Li, Y. H. (1982c), A brief discussion on the mean oceanic residence time of elements, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46, 2671‑2675.
  • Santschi, P. H., Y. H. Li, D. M. Adler, M. Amdurer and U. P. Nyffeler, (1983), The relative mobility of natural (Th, Pb and Po) and fallout (Pu, Am, Cs) nuclides in the coastal marine environment:  results from model ecosystems: (MERL) and Narragansett Bay, Geochim.  Cosmochim. Acta 47, 201‑210.
  • Li, Y. H. (1984a), Why are the compositions of living organisms so similar?, Schweiz. Z. Hydrol. 46, 177‑184.
  • Li, Y. H. (1984b), Desorption and coagulation of tracer elements during estuarine mixing, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48, 1879‑1884.
  • Li, Y. H., L. Burkhardt, P. O'Hara and M. Buchholtz, (1984c), Partition of radiotracers between suspended particles and seawater, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48, 2011‑2019.
  • Li, Y. H., H. Teraoka, T. S. Yang and J.S. Chen, (1984d), The elemental compositions of suspended particles from the Yellow and Yantze Rivers, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48, 1561‑1564.
  • Nyffeler, U. P., Y. H. Li and P. H. Santschi, (1984e), A kinetic approach to describe trace element distribution between particles and solution in natural aquatic systems, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48, 1513‑1522.
  • Li, Y. H., T. H. Peng, W. S. Broecker and H. G. Ostlund, (1984f), The average vertical eddy diffusion coefficient of the ocean, Tellus 36B, 212‑217.
  • Li, Y. H., T. H. Peng and W. S. Broecker, (1985), The average vertical mixing coefficient for the oceanic thermocline ‑ A reply to Austin and Green, Tellus 37B, 186‑187.
  • Chen, J. S., Y. H. Li, J. X. Yue, and D. C. Wang, (1985), Physical and chemical denudation of the river drainage areas in China, Kexue Tonbao 30, 791-796 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Nyffeler, U. P., P. H. Santschi and Y. H. Li, (1986), A kinetic approach for trace metal transport in natural waters, Limnol. Oceanogr. 31(2), 277­292.
  • Santschi, P. H., Y. H. Li, P. O'Hara and M. Amdurer, (1986), Removal and backdiffusion processes of radiotracers in shallow coastal marine ecosystems: (MERL) of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, U.S.A. Rapp. P.‑V. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 186, 212‑218.
  • Santschi, P. H., Y. H. Li, P. O'hara, M. Amdurer, D. Adler and P. Doering, (1987), Relative mobility of radioactive trace elements across the sediment‑water interface of the MERL model ecosystems, J. Marine Res. 45, 1007‑1048.
  • Li, Y. H., (1988), Denudation rates of the Hawaiian Islands by rivers and groundwaters, Pacific Science 42, 253-266.
  • Li, Y. H., P. H. Santschi, P. O'Hara, P. Doering and M. Amdurer, (1989), The importance of benthic fauna in the removal of trace elements from coastal waters, Environment. Tech. Lett. 10, 57-70.
  • You, C. F., T. Lee, Y. H. Li, (1989), The partition of Be between soil and water, Chem. Geol. 77, 105-118.
  • Li, Y. H. (1991), Distribution patterns of the elements in the ocean: A synthesis, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3223-3240.
  • Cowen, J. P. and Y. H. Li, (1991), The influence of a changing bacterial community on trace metal scavenging in a deep-sea particle plume, J. Mar. Res. 49, 517-542.
  • Chen, J. S., G. Xie, and Y. H. Li, (1991), Denudation rate of Hainan island and its comparison with Taiwan island and Hawaiian islands, Quaternary Sciences 4, 289-299 (in Chinese with English abstract).
  • Li, Y. H. (1992), Seasalt and pollution inputs within the continental United States, Water, Air & Soil Pollution 64, 561-573.
  • Tribble, G. W., F. J. Sansone, R. W. Buddemeier, and Y. H. Li, (1992), Hydraulic exchange between a coral reef and surface seawater, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 104, 1280-1291.
  • Tribble, G. W., F. J. Sansone, R. W. Buddemeier, and Y. H. Li, (1992), Hydraulic exchange between a coral reef and surface seawater, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 104, 1280-1291.
  • Li, Y. H. (1994), Material exchange between the East China Sea and the Kuroshio Current, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 5, 625-631.
  • Li, Y. H. and G. C. Gong, (1996), End members of water masses in the western Japan Sea, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 7, 119-131.
  • Kumar, M. D. and Y. H. Li, (1996), Spreading of deep water masses and biogeochemical behavior of silica and 226Ra in the Indian Ocean, Deep Sea Res. 43, 83-110.
  • Li, Y. H., C.T. Chen, and J. J. Hung, (1997), Aquatic chemistry of lakes and reservoirs in Taiwan, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 8, 31-50.
  • Wen, X., H. E. DeCarlo, and Y. H. Li, (1997), Interelement relationships in ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific Ocean: Their implications for crust genesis, Marine Geology 136, 277-297.
  • Li, L. A., C. H. Wang, S. H. Liaw, Y. L. Yung, Y. H. Li, Y. C. Chen and P. C. Li, (1997), The impact of worldwide volcanic activities on local precipitation: Taiwan as an example, J. Geol. Soc. China (Taiwan) 40, 299-311.
  • Troy, P., Y.H. Li, and F. T. Mackenzie, (1997), Morphological change of calcite surface in seawater at HOT station and its implication, Aquatic Geochemistry 3, 1-20.
  • Fanale, F. P., Y. H. Li, E. DeCarlo, N. Domergue-Schmidt, S. K. Sharma, K. Horton, J. C. Granahan, and the Galileo NIMS Team, (1998), Laboratory simulation of the chemical evolution of Europa’s aqueous phase, Lunar and Planetary Science XXIX, 1248-1249.
  • Winn, C. D., Y. H. Li, F. T. Mackenzie, and D. M. Karl, (1998), Rising surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon at the Hawaii Ocean Time-Series Site, Marine Chemistry 60, 33-47.
  • Milliman, J. D., P. J. Troy, W. M. Balch, A. K. Adams, Y. H. Li, and F. T. Mackenzie, (1999), Biologically mediated dissolution of calcium carbonate above the chemical lysocline? Deep Sea Res. I 46, 1653-1660.
  • Li, Y. H., D. M. Karl, C. D. Winn, F. T. Mackenzie, and K. Gans, (2000), Remineralization ratios in the subtropical North Pacific gyre, Aquatic Geochemistry 6, 65-87.
  • Wong, G. T. F., S. Y. Chao, Y. H. Li, and F. K. Shiah, (2000), The Kuroshio edge exchange processes (KEEP) study: an introduction to hypotheses and highlights, Continental Shelf Research 20, 335-347.
  • Wong, G. T. F., S. Y. Chao, Y. C. Chung, and Y, H. Li, (2000), KEEP- Exchange processes between the Kuroshio and the East China Sea Shield: Preface, Continental Shelf Research 20, 331-334.
  • Fanale, F. P., Y. H. Li, E. DeCarlo, C. Farley, S. K. Sharma, K. Horton, and J. C. Granahan, (2001), An experimental estimate of Europa’s “Ocean” composition: independent of Galilo orbital remote sensing, J. Geophys. Res.  Planets, 106: 14595-14600.
  • Li, Y. H. and T. H. Peng, (2002), Latitudinal change of the remineralization ratios in the oceans, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16, #4, 77-1 to 77-15.
  • Li, Y. H. and J. Schoonmaker, (2004), Chemical composition and mineralogy of marine sediments, in Sediments, Daigenesis, and Sedimentary Rocks (ed. F. T. Mackenzie) Vol. 7, Treatise on Geochemistry (eds. H.D. Holland and K. K. Turekian), Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, 1-35.
  • Li, Y. H. (2005), Controversy over the relationship between major components of sediment-trap materials and the distribution coefficients of 230Th, 231Pa, and 10Be, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 233, 1-7.
  • Li, Y. H., L. Menviel, T. H. Peng (2006), Nitrate deficits by nitrification and denitrification processes in the Indian Ocean, Deep Sea Research I 53, 94-110.
  • Li, Y. H.,(2006), Are all creatures created equal? (Geochemistry of biosphere), Trans. Res. Inst. Oceanochemistry 19, 106-112.
  • Li, Y.H., T. Takamatsu and Y. Sohrin (2007) Geochemistry of Lake Biwa sediments revisited, Limnology 8, 321-330.
  • Li, Y.H. (2008) Factors controlling the distribution of elements in the ocean, Trans. Res. Inst. Oceanochemistry 21, 1-21.
  • Measures CI, Sato T, Vink S, Howell S, and Li YH (2010) The fractional solubility of aluminium from mineral aerosols collected in Hawaii and implications for atmospheric deposition of biogeochemically important trace elements, Mar. Chem. 120,144-153.
  • Lin I I, Hu C, Li YH, Ho TY, Fischer TP, Wong GTF, Wu JF, Huang CW,1, Chu A, Ko DS, and Chen JP (2011c) Fertilization potential of volcanic dust in the low-nutrient low-chlorophyll western North Pacific subtropical gyre: Satellite evidence and laboratory study, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 25, GB1006, doi:10.1029/2009GB003758.
  • Li YH, Sohrin Y and Takamatsu T (2011a) Lake Biwa and the ocean: Geochemical similarity and difference. Limnology 12, 89-101.
  • Li YH (2011b) Partition of elements between liquid and solid phases in aqueous environment. Aquatic Geochemistry 17, 697-725.
  • Li YH and Ishihara S (2013a) Compositional variation of the late Cretaceous–Paleogene plutons from southwest Japan and its implication for ore genesis and continental growth. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 70–71, 142–159
  • Chuang CY, Santschi PH, Ho YF, Conte MH , Guo LD, Schumann D , Ayranov M, Li YH (2013b) Role of biopolymers as major carrier phases of Th, Pa, Pb, Po, and Be radionuclides in settling particles from the Atlantic Ocean. Marine Chemistry 157, 131-143

Reports and Proceedings

  • Hung, T. C., Y. H. Li, D. C. Wu, Y. M. Chiang, T. H. Tan, H. T. Chang and P. C. Chu, (1975), The aquatic environment and ecology of the Kaohsiung Harbor, The special report No. 5, Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University.
  • Hung, T. C., Y. H. Li and D. C. Wu, (1975), The pollution of heavy metals in Kaohsiung Harbor. in International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment. Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 809-820.
  • Mathieu, G., A. E. Bainbridge, W. S. Broecker, R. M. Horowitz, Y. H. Li and J. Sarmiento, (1977), GEOSECS Atlantic and Pacific Surface Hydrography and Radon Atlas, GOG publication #120.
  • Santschi, P. H. and Y. H. Li, (1981), Removal pathways of the Th and Pu isotopes in coastal marine environments, in Proceedings of the Second Special Symposium on Natural Radiation Environment, Bombay, India, DOE Symposium Series, NTS.
  • Simpson, H. J., R. M. Trier, Y. H. Li, R. F. Anderson and A. L. Herczeg, (1984), Field experiment determinations of distribution coefficients of actinide elements in alkaline lake environments, Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG/CR‑3940, pp 114.
  • Tribble, G. W., F. J. Sansone, Y. H. Li, S. V. Smith and R. W. Buddemeier, (1988), Material fluxes from a reef framework, Proceeding of Sixth International Coral Reef Symposium, vol. 2, 577-582.
  • Wang, C. H., L. A. Li, S. H. Lian, Y. L. Yung, and Y. H. Li, (1995), Taiwan's drought periods based on the precipitation records for the past 100 years, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on the Evolution of East Asian Environment. Hong Kong.
  • Li, Y. H. (1999a), Current status of Taiwan’s coastal marine environment and its sustainable management, Report at the President’s Office (Taiwan), pp40 (in Chinese).
  • Li, Y. H. (1999b), Geochemistry of the hydrosphere in Taiwan, in Technical Conference for 60th Anniversary of Geology Department, Taida: Sustainable Development and Geosceince Perspective.