Ocean 621: Biological Oceanography

Spring 2009

(Monday, Wednesday, Friday 9:30-10:20 AM; MSB 315)

Instructors:

Matthew Church, Office: MSB 612, 956-8779, mjchurch@hawaii.edu

Karen Selph, Office: MSB 608, 956-7941, selph@hawaii.edu

Craig Smith, Office: MSB 617, 956-7776, craigsmi@hawaii.edu


Visiting Lecturers:

Rhian Waller, rwaller@hawaii.edu; 

Les Watling, watling@hawaii.edu

Grieg Steward, grieg@hawaii.edu

Biological Oceanography (OCN 621) is one of several required core courses for graduate students in the Department of Oceanography at the University of Hawaii.  The course meets three times each week (MWF) from 9:30-10:20 AM.  Lectures and exams will cover fundamental concepts in biological oceanography, including topics pertinent to the study of the ecology of pelagic and benthic organisms.  Lectures will include information related to the biomass and productivity of diverse marine ecosystems, assessment of bioelemental cycling of marine organisms, and examination of environmental controls on the growth and mortality of benthic and pelagic organisms.  The course will be divided into three primary sections: 1) planktonic production and elemental cycling, 2) pelagic food web dynamics and fisheries oceanography, and 3) ecology of marine benthic habitats.

Grades will be earned based on two criteria: 

1) Regular attendance and participation in weekly lectures (10%); 

2) Performance on the three written, in class exams (30% each). 

Students are expected to attend all lectures having become familiar with the reading material assigned for each lecture.

Student Learning Outcomes:

1) Students should be able to define the major forms of life in the sea, describe the characteristics that distinguish these forms, and describe how these forms relate to each other ecologically.

2) Students should be able to explain how marine organisms influence cycling of bioelements.

3) Students should be able to describe prominent characteristics of the primary marine habitats.

4) Students should be able to define processes that control the biomass, growth, and productivity of organisms in the marine environment.

5) Students should be able to describe methodological approaches appropriate for evaluating the biomass, growth, and mortality of plankton, nekton, and sessile marine organisms.



Text:
Marine Ecology: Processes, Systems, and Impacts
Kaiser et al. (2005) Oxford University Press (New York)
 

Grading:

10% class participation

30% Exam I (Bioenergetics, production and respiration, biogeochemical Fluxes)

30% Exam II (Zooplankton, pelagic ecology, fisheries oceanography)

30% Exam III (Benthic oceanography and ecology)


Course Schedule (Jan. 12-Feb. 23, 2009)

Date

Topic

Lecturer

Reading

Monday

Jan. 12

Introduction to Biological Oceanography

Church


Wednesday

Jan. 14

Plankton metabolism and bioenergetics

Church

Kaiser et al. text Chapter 1.1-1.2

(pp. 1-20)

Friday

Jan. 16

Classes canceled due to weather

Monday

Jan. 19

NO CLASS-MLK Day

 

 

Wednesday

Jan. 21

Plankton biomass

Church

Falkowski (2002); Whitman (1998); Kaiser et al. text Chapter 6.1-6.4.1
(pp. 212-225);     Cullen et al. (2002)

Friday

Jan. 23

Carbon cycling and the biological pump

Church

Ducklow et al. (2001)

Monday

Jan. 26

Photosynthesis and photosynthetic organisms

Church

Kaiser et al. text Chapter 2; Cullen Primary Production Encyclopedia

Wednesday

Jan. 28

Measurements and controls on primary priduction

Church

Sverdrup (1953)

Friday

Jan. 30

Productivity and Nutrients

Church


Monday

Feb. 2

Sources and variability in nutrients

Church

Kaiser et al. text
Chapter 3; 
Kirchman (2003);
Carlson et al. (1994)

Wednesday

Feb. 4

Dissolved organic matter and the microbial loop

Church

Pomeroy (1974), Ducklow (2000)

Friday

Feb. 6

The ecology of marine viruses

Steward


Monday

Feb. 9

Bacterial production and respiration

Church

del Giorgio and Duarte (2002)

Wednesday

Feb. 11

Living Zooplankton Diversity -- Demo

Selph

 

Friday

Feb. 13

The marine nitrogen cycle

Church

Arrigo (2005)

Monday

Feb. 16

NO CLASS-Presidents Day

 

 

Wednesday

Feb. 18

The HNLC Condition

Selph

Landry et al. 1997; Buesseler et al. 2004; Jickells et al. 2005

Friday

Feb. 20

Climate and ocean biology

Church

 

Monday

Feb. 23

EXAM 1

Church

 


Course Schedule (Feb. 25-March 30, 2009)

 

Date

 

Topic

 

Lecturer

 

Reading

Wednesday

Feb. 25

Pelagic Consumers-Zooplankton diversity

Selph

Jurgens & Matz 2002

Friday

Feb. 27

Pelagic Consumers-Zooplankton feeding – Protists (including demo)

Selph

Sherr and Sherr 2002

Jones 2000

 

Monday

March 2

Pelagic  Consumers-Zooplankton feeding and selectivity

Selph

Turner 2004

 

Wednesday 

March 4

Pelagic Consumers-Methods & Energetics

Selph

Landry & Calbet 2004

Friday

March 6

Pelagic Consumers-Energetics

Selph


 

Monday

March 9

Pelagic Community Ecology-Diel Vertical Migration

Selph

Kobari et al. 2003

Calculation worksheet

Wednesday 

March 11

Pelagic Community Ecology-Food webs 1

Selph

Landry 2002
Legendre & Rivkin 2005

Friday

March 13

Pelagic Community Ecology-Food webs 2

Selph

Paffenhoffer et al. 2007
Vargas & Gonzales 2004

Monday

March 16

Fisheries Oceanography - Management

Selph

 

Chapter 12

Wednesday

March 18

Fisheries Oceanography-Life Cycles 1

Selph

Lynam et al. 2004

Friday 

March 20

Fisheries Oceanography-Life Cycles 2

Selph

Chapter 13

Pauly et al. 1998

Essington et al. 2006

Monday

March 23

NO CLASS-SPRING BREAK

 

 

Wednesday

March 25

NO CLASS-SPRING BREAK

 

 

Friday

March 27

NO CLASS-SPRING BREAK

 

 

Monday

March 30

Exam

Selph

 

 Exam Answers



Course Schedule (April 1-May 11, 2009)

Date

Topic

Lecturer

Reading

Wednesday

April 1

Sediment Microbiology

Wang

 

 

Friday

April 3

Sediment Microbiology  (cont.)

Wang

 

Monday

April 6

Generalizations about benthic habitats, basic sediment geochemistry, &
benthic energy resources

Smith

 

Levinton, J. S., 2001.  Marine Biology, Chapter 13, Benthic Life Habits

Kaiser et al., 2005. Marine Ecology, Chapter 7, Continental Shelf Seabed

Smith et al. 2008

Wednesday

April 8

Deposit  Feeding

Smith

 

Lopez and Levinton, 1987. Ecology of deposit feeding animals in marine sediments.

Friday

April 10

NO CLASS-

GOOD FRIDAY

 

 

Monday

April 13

Suspension Feeding

Smith

 

 

Wednesday

April 15

Distribution Patterns:
Size classes, grain size vs. feeding types, pollution gradients

Smith

 

 

Friday

April 17

Distribution patterns: Depth Zonation

Smith

 

 

Monday

April 20

Deep-sea Reducing habitats: Vents, seeps and whale falls

Smith

 

 

Wednesday

April 22

Deep-sea Reducing habitats: cont.

Smith

 

 

Friday

April 24

Pelagic-Benthic Coupling and Climate Change at High Lats.

Smith

 

Grebmeier et al. (2006)

Monday
April 27

Corals – The Basics

Waller

Chapter 1 - Birkeland C (1997) Life and Death of Coral Reefs. Chapman and Hall Press
Part 2.A - Veron JEN (1995) Corals in Space and Time: The biogeography and evolution of the scleractinia. UNSW Press

Wednesday

April 29

Coral Reefs

Waller

Knowlton et al. (2001)

Friday

May 1

Corals – Anthropogenic Impacts

Waller

 

Monday

May 4

Deepwater Corals

Waller

 

Wednesday

May 6

Seamount Ecology

Watling

 

Monday

May 11

EXAM 3

Smith