Class Schedule and Reading (files and Lecture Note Downloads are on Laulima):

ERTH607 - Submarine Volcanoes

A course that explores various aspects of volcanic activity in the deep ocean and its effect on the surrounding environment.
Fall 2018 - visit the course web page and/or download the course syllabus
glowing lava bubble
hot pillow lava
NOTE: the lecture content is subject to slight shifts and changes (i.e., it will evolve during the semester). also, if you download files way in advance, check back the day before class to see if I've posted more recent versions

Instructor: Ken Rubin
Day, Time: Tu-Th, 1:30-2:45 PM

Place: POST 613
Fellow Seminarians.....

This class will consist of roughly once-a-week semi-informal lectures (usually tuesday) and once a week meetings (usually thursday) in which we will discuss 1 or 2 papers we read for that week. In some weeks we may condense this into one meeting per week, depending on schedules. Expect to lead a discussion or two later in the semester. (Discussion leaders' names will be given in Bold Text for each reading)

Lecture/presentation notes for registered participants are downloadable from the course page on Laulima



Discussion leader + topic

reading (see also full reference list at the bottom of this web page)


Aug 22

no class


2 (1)

Aug 29

Ken, General intro lecture

Rubin et al., 2012

3 (2)

Sep 5

Ken, Submarine Lava flows.

Soule et al., 2007

2018 topics and leaders

4 (3)

Sep 12

Ken, Submarine Pyroclastic Activity

Clague et al., 2009, Schipper et al., 2011

5 (4)

Sep 19

Ken, hydrothermal megaplumes

Baker et al. 2012 , G-cubed

6 (5)

Sep 26

Ken, Mid-ocean Ridge volcanism

Gillis-etal_HessDeep_Nature2013, Rubin2015-MOR_volc_mag_chapter

7 (6)

Oct 3

Jason, Effusive eruption mechanisms

McClinton-White_2015, Fundis2010_EPR-GC003058, Gregg_Fink1995

8 (7)

Oct 10

Elizabath, eruption detection / response

Baker et al. 2012 , Oceanography; Dziak et al., 2007

9 (8)

Oct 17

Krista, submarine volcano monitoring

Dimitriadis et al., 2009 

10 (9)

Oct 24

Joy, submarine geology/mapping

clague et al., 2013-Axial

11 (10)

Oct 31

Adrien, Magmatic processes (petrology/geochemistry)
Lauren, eruption Geochronology

bergmanis et al, 2007, Rubin et al., 1994 and Rubin et al 2005.

10 (11)

Nov 7

Amber, volcanic ecosystems

Govenar et al. 2015, Mullineaux et al, 2018

11 (12)

Nov 14

Dave Graham, magmatic gasses and vesiculation; no class Nov. 21


12 (13)

Nov 28

Malia, Submaine Hot Spot Volcanism

Staudigel et al., 2006, 23-1_koppers2010

13 (14)

Dec 5.

Colin,Shallow submarine/surtseyan volcanism
Olli, Magma-Seawater interactions

murtagh_white2013-BlackPoint_Surseyan-1-s2.0-S0377027313002576, Colombier12018-hunga-Surtseyan
engels2003-mor-lobates-2002GC000483, perfit-etal2004


References for reading and background papers (sorry, the list contains some from prior years of the course too)
  • Auzende, J-M., V. Ballu, R. Batiza, D. Bideau, J. L. Charlou, M. H. Cormier, Y. Fouquet, P. Geistdorfer, Y. Lagabrielle, J. Sinton and P. Spadea (1996) Recent tectonic, magmatic, and hydrothermal activity on the East Pacific Rise between 17 and 19 S: Submersible observations, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 17995-18010.
  • EC Bergmanis, J Sinton, KH Rubin (2007) Recent Eruptive History and Magma Reservoir Dynamics on the Southern East Pacific Rise at 17.5 S, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q12O06, doi:10.1029/2007GC001742
  • Bowles, J., et al. (2006), Paleointensity applications to timing and extent of eruptive activity, 9–10N East Pacific Rise, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 7, Q06006, doi:10.1029/2005GC001141.
  • Butterfield, D.A., I.R. Jonasson, G.J. Massoth, R.A. Feely, K.K. Roe, R.E. Embley, J.F. Holden, R.E. McDuff, M.D. Lilley, and J.R. Delaney (1997) Seafloor eruptions and evolution of hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 355, 369–386
  • Clague, D. A., Paduan, J. B. & Davis, A. S. Widespread strombolian eruptions of mid-ocean ridge basalt.(2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 180, 171-188.
  • Clague, D.A., J.B. Paduan, B.C. McIntosh, B.L. Cousens, A.S. Davis, J. R. Reynolds, 2006, A submarine perspective of the Honolulu Volcanics, Oahu, J. Vocanol. Geotherm. Res., 151, 279-307.
  • Clague, DA, Calvert, AT (2009) Postshield stage transitional volcanism on Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii, Bull. Volcanol. 71, 533–539, DOI 10.1007/s00445-008-0240-z
  • Dziak, RP and Fox, CG (1999) The January 1998 Earthquake Swarm at Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Hydroacoustic Evidence of Seafloor Volcanic Activity, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 26,3429-3432.
  • Edwards, M et al. (2011?) Methodologies for Surveying and Assessing Deep Water Munitions Disposal Sites
  • Embley et al., (2006) Long-Term Eruptive Activity at a Submarine Arc Volcano, Nature, 441, 494-497 doi:10.1038/nature04762
  • Fox, C.G., H. Matsumoto, T.-K.A. Lau (2001) Monitoring Pacific Ocean seismicity from an autonomous hydrophone array, J. Geophys Res, 106(B3), 4183-4206.
  • AT, Fundis, Soule SA, Fornari DJ, et al. (2010) Paving the seafloor: Volcanic emplacement processes during the 2005-2006 eruptions at the fast spreading East Pacific Rise, 9 degrees 50 ' N, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst.11 Article Number: Q08024.
  • Fornari, D.J., R.M. Haymon, M.R. Perfit, T.K.P. Gregg and M.H. Edwards, Axial summit caldera of the East Pacific Rise 9° to 10°N: Geological characteristics and evolution of the axial zone on fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 9827-9855, 1998.
  • Gregg, T. K. P., and J. H. Fink (1995) Quantification of of submarine lava flow morphology through analog experiments, Geology, 23, 73-76.
  • KM Haase, S Fretzdorff, R Mühe, D Garbe-Schönberg, P Stoffers (2009) A geochemical study of off-axis seamount lavas at the Valu Fa Ridge: Constraints on magma genesis and slab contributions in the southern Tonga subduction zone, Lithos 112, 137–148
  • Johnson, R.H.,and R.A. Norris, Significance of spectral banding in hydroacoustic signals from submarine volcanice eruptions: Myojin 1970; J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4461-4469, 1972.
  • Macdonald, Ken C. (2001). Mid-Ocean Ridge Tectonics, Volcanism and Geomorphology ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OCEAN SCIENCES (eds. J. Steele, S. Thorpe, K. Turekian), Academic Press, p. 1798-1813.
  • Perfit and Chadwick, 1998, Magmatism at mid-ocean ridges: constraints from volcanological and geochemical investigations, p. 59-115 in Faulting and Magmatism at Mid-Ocean Ridges Geophysical Monograph 106.
  • JA Resing, KH Rubin, W Embley, JE Lupton, ET Baker, RP Dziak, TBaumberger, MD Lilley, JA Huber, TM Shank, DA Butterfield, DA Clague, NS Keller, SG Merle, NJ Buck, PJ Michael, A Soule, DW Caress, SL Walker, R Davis, JP Cowen, A-L Reysenbach, H Thomas (2011) Active submarine eruption of boninite in the northeastern Lau Basin, Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1275.
  • Rubin, Macdougall and Perfit (1994) 210Po-210Pb dating of recent volcanic eruptions on the sea floor, Nature 368, 841-844.
  • KH Rubin, MC Smith, EC Bergmanis, MR Perfit, JM Sinton and R Batiza (2001) Geochemical heterogeneity within mid-ocean ridge lava flows: insights into eruption, emplacement and global variations in magma generation. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 188, 349-367.
  • KH Rubin, I. van der Zander, MC Smith and EC Bergmanis (2005) Minimum speed limit for ocean ridge magmatism from 210Pb-226Ra-230Th disequilibria, Nature, 437, 534-538, doi:10.1038/nature03993
  • Rubin, Soule, Chadwick, Fornari, Clague, Embley, Baker, Perfit, Caress, Dziak (2012), Volcanic Eruptions in the Deep Sea, Oceanography, in press.
  • DK Smith, LSL King, KTM Johnson, JR Reynolds (2002) Volcanic morphology of the submarine Puna ridge, Kilauea volcano. Hawaiian Volcanoes: Deep Underwater Perspectives. Geophysical Monograph 128, AGU, p125-142
  • CI Schipper, JDL White, BF Houghton (2011) Textural, geochemical, and volatile evidence for a Strombolian-like eruption sequence at Lo`ihi Seamount, Hawai`i, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 207,16-32.
  • J Sinton, E Bergmanis, KH Rubin, R Batiza, TKP Gregg, K Grönvold, K Macdonald, and S White (2002) Volcanic eruptions on mid-ocean ridges: New evidence from the superfast-spreading East Pacific Rise, 17o-19oS, J. Geophys. Res. 107(B6), 2115, doi:10.1029/2000JB000090.
  • S.A. Soule, D.J. Fornari, M.R. Perfit and K.H. Rubin (2007), New insights into mid-ocean ridge volcanic processes from the 2005-06 eruption of the East Pacific Rise, 9° 46'-56'N, Geology,35 (12), 1079-1082, doi: 10.1130/G23924A.1.
  • M Tolstoy, J P Cowen, E T Baker, DJ Fornari, KH Rubin, TM Shank, F Waldhauser, DR Bohnenstiehl, DW Forsyth, RC Holmes, B Love, MR Perfit, RT Weekly, SA Soule, B. Glazer (2006) A Seafloor Spreading Event Captured by Seismometers, Science, 314, 1920-1922.
  • Von Damm, K.L. (2004) Evolution of the Hydrothermal System at the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N: Geochemical evidence for changes in the upper oceanic crust, Geophys. Monogr., AGU, 148: 285-304.


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last page update on 10 Dec 2018