alkalinity The amount of excess base in a solution, measured in millimoles/kilogram--basically in these muds, a measure of dissolved carbonate.
Bioluminescence The emission of visible light by living organisms.
chlorinity A measure of the halide elements present: chloride, bromide, iodide, and fluoride. Called chlorinity because chloride is the most abundant
crane A machine for hoisting and moving heavy objects using cables attached to a movable boom (arm).
fairlead On a ship, a hole or arch that a line or rope is threaded through in order to change its direction. Often used to direct the sheets (lines) that control sails.
fault a fracture in rock along which the adjacent rock surfaces are differentially displaced
forearc region of a convergent plate boundary that lies between the trench axis and the active volcanic island chain.
Geiger counter An instrument used to detect, measure and record nuclear emanations, cosmic rays and artificially produced subatomic particles.
hypothermic Dangerously cold. Hypothermia is the chilling of the body below a life sustaining temperature.
knot a unit of speed. One knot is a little faster than one mile per hour. 1 knot = 1.15 miles per hour
isotopes Atoms with the same atomic number, but different mass numbers (same number of protons but a different number of neutrons).
mantle an intermediate zone of the earth below the crust and above the core (to a depth of 2160 miles)
Metamorphic rock Metamorphic means, "change of form." Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have formed due to changes in volcanic or sedimentary rock.
Peridotite a rock that is composed dominantly of the mineral olivine. "Peridote" is the gem name for olivine, a pale olive-green glassy mineral, hence the name "peridotite" for the rock
pH A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution where 7 is neutral, increasing with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with increasing acidity.
Photic-zone The upper region of the ocean into which sunlight penetrates
plate a large rigid, but mobile, block involved in plate techtonics; thickness ranges from 30 to 150 miles and includes both crust and a portion of the upper mantle.
scarp a steep slope or cliff
serpentine (Mg, Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4 A group of green, greenish-yellow or greenish-gray ferromagnesian hydrous silicate rock forming minerals having greasy or silky luster and a slightly soapy feel
serpentinized a rock that has been converted into serpentinite through hydration of its original olivine or pyroxene minerals
sheave (pronounced, "shiv") A wheel or disk with a grooved rim used as a pulley.
Shinkai Japanese for "Deep Sea"
sonar system for the underwater detection of objects by reflected sound
subduction zone region where one crustal block descends beneath another.
titration The gradual adding of very specific amounts of one solution to another solution until a chemical reaction occurs. Used to determine concentration of a substance in a solution.
transect a straight line marking an area of study
transponder a device that emits a sound of a specific frequency at a set time interval
trench long depression in the seafloor that traces the contact between a subducting lithospheric plate and an over-riding plate.
winch A stationary, motor driven or hand-powered hoisting machine that has a drum around which the cable or wire winds as the load is lifted.