The El Niño Southern Oscillation
What is ENSO?
The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the oscillation in winds and sea surface temperatures affiliated with the Central Pacific. El Niño and La Niña are the warm and cool phases of this oscillation, shifting back and forth approximately every two to seven years. These shifts bring predictable changes in sea surface temperature and wind patterns, influencing rainfall and ocean upwelling across the tropics. Understanding the global impacts of ENSO on weather as well as accurately predicting these periods are essential, but still poorly understood, research questions.
Prof. Bin Wang and colleages have just published a paper in PNAS, entitled “historical change of El Nino properties sheds light on future change of extreme El Nino”. You can get a copy at: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/10/15/1911130116 The attached is a figure