Alvin Dive 3352 - February 11, 1999.

Transcript from a tape by Karl Grönvold.

Tracy Gregg, portside

Karl Gronvold starboard

Dudley Foster, pilot.

Time, bearing and depth from submarine data screen.




Time Bearing Depth Comments

0847   1130 Magnetic spin - two circles
0942 256 2667 Bottom in sight.
0945 314 2676 Very heavily sedimented pillows. Space between pillow filled up and a few cm thick continuous cover on flat surfaces. A possible fault just below us. Possibly 10 cm horizontal movement ñ no vertical.
0949   2677 No good fixes.
0954   2677 Looking for a good sample.
1001   2678 Just picked up a sample.
1002 105 2674 Heavily sedimented pillow lava. Sub kicking up lots of dust.
1003 107 2672 Heavily sedimented pillow lava.
1005 106 2666 Heavily sedimented large pillows. A large fissure coming up. No vertical - horizontal 3-4 m.
1006 107   Another horizontal fault ñ 30 cm.
1007 104   Another horizontal fault ñ 30 cm
  106   Another horizontal fault ñ less than 30 cm
1009 105 2664 Heavily sedimented pillow lava.
      Two parallel fissures 30 and 40 cm wide ñ no vertical movement.
      Still in heavily sedimented pillow lava.
1010 105   A big fault 1-2 m wide ñ no vertical movement ñ clearly deep with no bottom visible.
1011 101 2663 x-4363 y-17037 Heavily sedimented - pillow/lobate?
1012     Heavily sedimented lobate with occasional pillows standing out.
      Another fault about 30 cm wide.
1013 100   Complex of faults ñ 3 small ones with a some vertical movement and then a huge fault with vertical movement of 2 m. Another 10 m wide ñ both with downtrow on the west side. Seem to be coming into folded sheet flow. Another large fault - downtrow to the east, about 4 m wide.
1014     In pillows ñ crossed a big fault.
1015     Heavily sedimented pillows and markedly fewer faults. We clearly crossed some heavily faulted blocks. Ö some with significant vertical displacement.
1016 97 2662

Sheeted flow - a small fault with no vertical displacement but 30 horizontal.

A big fault ñ at least 5 m horizontal but no vertical movement.

1017 98 2661 A big fault. No vertical movement but 8-10 m wide. Walls made of thin flow units.
1017 95.6 2662 Still same thick sediment with pillows seen at the surface but possible sheet flows between the pillows.
1018     Pillows.
1019 97 2660 Heavily sedimented pillows. Suspect we just passed a small collapse in the lava flow.
1020 99   Heavily sedimented pillow lavas.
1022     A small fault. Impression of traveling over mounds of pillows.
1025 96   x-4826 y-17000. Some folded sheets visible.
      Possibly over a lava channel with cracks at the bottom. We are clearly in sheet flows but still heavily sedimented. A deep trough right in front of us. Has the same orientation as the faults. Look like a large fault with a large block tilted into it. The bottom of the trough is hardly visible. Another wall coming up in front.
1026 95   Crossing a big channel trough? See sheet flows jumbled up on the other side of the trough. A small horst inside the depression. The bottom of the trough is folded sheet flows. Lot of folded sheet at the bottom.
1028 95   Over folded sheet flows. Tightly folded sheet flows. Small collapses. Coming up to a wall. There is a deep crack in front of us, very deep. Donít see the bottom.
1029 94   A fault below us about 30 cm. Traveling high over the ground.
1030 93   Bottom hardly visible.
1031 84 2672 Pillows and bottom is closer. Over lobate flow with pillows on top. Possibly less sedimented than before but still close to 2.5. Not much glass seen. Lobes are elongated 4-5 m long.
1032 80 2672 Bottom close ñ made of lobate flow. Sediment less than in the beginning but still 2-2.5
1033     On the boundary between lobate flow and heavily folded sheet lava.
1034     Heavily folded sheet flow and into lobate lava. Sediment cover 2-2.5.
1035 84 2674 Sheet flows and then lobate lava. Same sediment thickness. Touched bottom.
1035     Lobates with sheets between.
1036 82   Traveling over lobates. Sediment thickness about 2. No faults for some time. Pillows seen in the lobates. Areas of pillows surrounded by lobate flow.
1038 61 2677 Heavily sedimented lobate lava. Broken lobes. Looking for a sample in what appears to be a small pillow mound, surrounded by lobates..
1044   2678 Sample to in the basket.
1045 79  

Rubble flow over to a lobate flow with rubble in between. Seem to be over a flow slope. Coming up a steep slope. Seems to be a fault 10-15 m wide. Continue in broken up sheet flow.

Coming to a drop (fissure) that deepens away from us. Has broken up sheet flow at the bottom. A fault ñ clearly in a faulted area. Another fault and it is a wide one. It is more like a channel with broken sheet flow ar the bottom. Another wall down.- deep subsidence in front of us ñ probably about 30-40 meters ñ folded sheet flow at the bottom with clear flow structures flowing down away from me ??? folded sheets.

1048 73   Sediment cover appears to be less than before ñ but difficult to judge.
1049 74 2667 Broken up sheet flows ñ fairly uneven depth. But now just below the sub. Coming to a fault 2-3 m wide.
1050 73 2664 Another fault about 1-2 m wide. Broken up sheet flows with folded sheet in between. Another fault. Sediment cover significantly less than before.
1051 55  

Another fault. Still in broken up sheet flow. Another deep drop so the bottom is far below.

Now over heavily sedimented sheet flow. Over a crack about 50 cm no vertical movement. Another fault about 30 cm. Yet another at 30 cm in sheet flow. Contact coming up with heavily broken up sheet flow. Looks like a clear contact.

1053 55 2666 Heavily sedimented flat sheet flow with cracks. Coming up to heavily folded sheet flows.
1055   2666 Beautifully folded sheet flows with thick sediment cover.
1056 189 2667 On the top of lobate lava but the edge of a very folded sheet ñ broken up.
1056     On a contact and close to the bottom.
1057   2668 Contact - has changed into sheet flow and very broken sheet flow.
1058 196   Heavily folded sheets.
1102   2667  
1106   2668 x-5465 y-17138. Have just picked up a sample from heavily folded sheet flow.
1107 197 2667 Very heavily folded sheet flows. More folded than broken up.
1108 196  

x-4651 y-18125. Folded sheet flow ñ very folded, but not much broken up. Coming up to a nice sheet flow. Sediment cover much less than earlier ñ 1.5-2. Contact between heavily folded and non-folded sheets.

Now traveling down a very steep slope steeping away from me ñ looks like a flow margin but still heavily folded sheet lava.

1110 192   x-5449 y-17055. Still sloping away from me. Flow margin rather than broken lava.
1111 190 2667 Heavily folded and broken up sheet flow. Lava channel. Heavily folded to less folded sheet flow. It is now deepening sharply in front of me.
1112 192 2668 This looks like a flow channel not a tectonic depression. On the bottom there is folded sheet flow -hardly broken up at all ñ just heavily folded. Sediment cover is 2-2.5. Now seeing the channel wall on the other side ñ made up of thin sheet flows.
1114 194   The wall of the lava channel appears not to be as steep as on the other side. Definitely went over a lava channel.
1115   2672 Heavily folded sheet flow.
1116 246 2670 Heavily sedimented sheet flow.
1117   2668 Over a fault. Traveling over a sheet flow. Distance to bottom increasing covered with folded sheet not much broken up.
1118 245 2671 Folded sheet flow. Lot of geothermal staining. Sediment thick possibly 3.
1119 246   x-5403 y-16941. Traveling up slope over a sheet flow that appears to be thick -1.5 m. Looks like helluhraun. Then into folded sheet and into broken up sheet flow. Broken up sheet flow. Coming over a lava channel again. This is a lava channel with broken up sheet flow at the bottom.
1120 246 2662 Very broken sheet -flow-jumbled up sheet flow. There seem to be irregular collapses.
1121     Over a sheet flow broken up but not jumbled. Broken into fairly large blocks rather than the small pieces of the jumbled up sheet flow. Crossed from sheet flow into lobate flow with collapsed surfaces. Into jumbled sheet flow but with large bocks of hardly broken sheets (helluhraun).
1122     Tape - side B.
1123 245   Broken sheet flow. Moving into lobate flow. Sediment age about 2.
1124 244   Just passed geothermal staining. Collapse or a fault. Sheet flow ñ helluhraun i.e. large flat lava surfaces with a few cracks, less than 30 cm wide, that seem parallel.
1125   2664 On a sheet flow. Seen in the cracks it may be 1-2 m thick flow units. Deepening below the sub. Changing to way point 4. Heavily sedimented. Big sheets.
1126     Collapses on the right tens of meters deep. Travelling semi-parallel to the collapse margin. Over folded sheet flow. Jumbled sheet flow.
rave 114 2665 x-5410 y-16815. Traveling more or less parallel to a vertical drop on my right. Drop of a few tens of meters and we are on the edge of it. Either a lava channel or a fault.
1128 118 2665 This could easily be the channel. Could be 40-50 m deep. Looking at sheeted flow ñ broken into large pieces ñ helluhraun.
1129 118   Coming to a margin ñ seems to be deepening away from me. Geothermal staining. Sheet flow with occasional lobes. Large wavelength sheet flow. . Geothermal staining. Changing from sheet flows and into lobate flow. Still with geothermal staining. No simmering could be observed. Heavily sedimented, must be 3.
1130 116 2670 Geothermal staining in a lobate flow with heavy geothermal staining. No simmering. Lobate flows.
1131   2670
1134 125 2670 Video tape change. Traveling over Pillows and sheet flows. Heavily sedimented ñ at least 2.5.
1135 124 2673 x-5441 y-16724. Over lobate flow. Sediment 2.5.
1136 124 2675 Large wavelength lobate flow.
1137   2679 Now over pillow lavas. Sediment cover 0.5. Changing into lobate flow. A deep drop here a big tectonic fault ñ 5 m wide. Into heavily folded sheet flow. Coming to a very deep drop vertical drop possibly 25-30 m. Cruising 30 m above the bottom. Broken up sheet flow at the bottom.
1140   2682 Folded sheet flow below at some depth. Broken but not extensively. Unbroken sheets.
1141   2683 Bottom at some depth below. Coming to a talus slope.
1143   2685 Trying to get a sample.
1150 117 2678 Have just picked up a sample.
1151     Travelling over a big collapse and a big block in the collapse. Can hardly see the bottom. Coming up to the other wall ñ made up of flows.
    2674 Just flying over the edge of the collapse or fault. Just going from sheets to lobate.
1152 116 2672 Over sedimented lobate flow.
1153   2675 Over lobate with sheets in between. Sedimentation 2.5. It is now shallow just below us. Large lobates.
1154 118 2675 Folded sheets. Sedimentation 2.5. Folded sheets not markedly broken up..
1156 120 2674 Now traveling up a talus and then a pillow rich wall. Going up a vertical slope. Can see sheet flows and pillows in the wall. May be 50 cm thick flows in the wall. Seems to be a horst.
1158 118 2659 Totally broken up. Looks like talus.
1159 116 2653 Climbing up the wall made up manly by pillow lavas some clearly broken.
    2648 x-5749 y-16589 Looks like a narrow ridge (horst).
1201   2647  
1204 237 2659 Over jumbled sheet flow. A very deep vertical drop.
1206 235 2678 Bottom is lobate flow. Sediment about 2.
1207 236   Over sedimented lobate flow. Little bit of hydrothermal staining in small cracks.
1209 236 2677 Over long wavelength lobate flow with sediment cover 2-2.5. Occasional hydrothermal staining in cracks ñ not intensive..
1210   2678 Touched bottom. Still large wavelength lobate flows. Sediment about 2 - or little bit less. Lobate flows ñ medium to long wavelength.
1212 236 2678 Over lobate flows. Some of them broken. Close to a contact with jumbled sheet flow. Crossed a contact into jumbled sheet flow. Could be a flow front. Hydrothermal alteration. Jumbled sheet flow.
1214 236 2679 A fault less than 1 m wide. Crossed another tectonic fault. Seem to be travelling into a faulted area. A big fault coming up in broken sheet flow. In the fault there is a large block dipping away from the fault wall. A block of helluhraun - large sheet.
1216 225 2682 A clear contact as we come into a jumbled up flow. Sheeted flow partly jumbled. Seem to be traveling over a bulge which now changes into pillows.
1217 232   Boundary between sheets and pillows. Coming into mainly sheets with occasional pillow sticking out. Some hydrothermal staining. Sediment thickness about 1. Come to a fault ñ a deep fault 2 m vertical. ñ a flat top horst. Another fault no bottom but flow units exposed in the walls ñ a few meters wide. Sheet flow ñhelluhraun- with irregular cracks.
1220   2687 From sheet lava over to lobate lava with occasional hydrothermal staining. ñ No simmering.. Touching the lava surface. Still hydrothermal staining. Possible small fault.. Over into sheet flow ñ curtain folds. One very small fault - not sure.
1222 234 2673 Sheet flow ñ sometimes folded ñ sometimes large plates. x-5377 y-16399 Over lobate flow.
1223 236 2676 Lobate flow with pillows.
1224 232 2677 x-5345 y-16274 Over lobate flows. Sedimentation age 2.
1226 233 2677 Lobate flow with pillows sticking up. Sediment 2.5.
1227     Collecting sample.
1233   2678 x-5266 y-16212
1234 195 2677 To way point 8. Change of plan because of possible early recall.
1235 195   Over lobate flow with sheets in between sometimes folded sometimes not.
1236 200   Still in lobate flows. Sedimentation 2.
1238 198 2683 x-5255 y-16083 Changed from lobate to pure pillows. Changing from pillow to pillows plus lobates.
1241 195 2684

Over lobates with occasional pillows and then increasing pillows and again into mainly lobate.

x-5226 y-15966. Lobate with pillows and pillows with lobate.

  198 2686 Mainly pillows but with lobate in between. Sediment 2.
1243   2684 Touched bottom. Large pillows.
1244 197 2681 Pillows.
1245 177 2680 x-5201 y-15814 Over lobate lava.
1246 178 2678 Over lobate lava.
1247     Moving from lobes into pillows. x-5207 y-15782 In pillows. with buds. Lobes not far off.
1248 183   x-5210 y- 15754 Sediment thickness about 2 or even less.
1249 181   Still in pillow lava.
1250 178  

Pillow lava - big pillows, elongated up to 5-6 m.

Flow front of some sort. Mainly pillow but with lobes.

1251 179 2665 In pillow lava with lots of buds.
1253 182 2668 Large pillows. On top of a pillow flow with Large pillows. Sediment is thickening up to 2 or 2.5. Geothermal staining. There was a clear thickening of the sediment cover where the geothermal remains were and then reverts back to 1 or 1.5.
1254     A deep fault 8 m wide no bottom visible. In pillow lavas.
1255   2678 Over large scale pillows.
1257 201 2669 x-5220 y-15536 Over large pillows with folded sheets between. Sediment thickness 1 ñ 1.5.
1259 199 2667 Traveling along quite a big fault. Still in pillow lava.
      x-5214 y-15497 Pillow lava with geothermal staining.
1301   2662 x-5229 y-15462
1302   2665 Lots of dead chimneys. Very big, with some biological activity but no simmering water.
1303 204 2663 Over pillow lavas. Lots of biological activity.
1304 202 2663 x-5268 y-15424.
1310 202 2641 Over pillow lavas with lots of buds. Some geothermal staining among the pillows.
1313   2668 Just picked up a sample.
1314 203 2670 Over pillow lavas. Sediment thickness 1.
1315 203   Over pillow lavas with lots of buds.
1316 212 2676 Pillows and broken up pillows.
1317     In lobate lava. Very little fresh glass can be seen. Sediment thickness 1.5 ñ 2. Lobate lava.
1318 205 2678 Traveling over helluhraun flat sheets surrounded by lopes. Lobate lava.
1320 203 2678 x-5105 y-15067 Lobate lava with some hydrothermal staining. Sheeted lava and then into lobes.
1321   2677 Sediment thickness 2 ñ 2.5.
1322     Travelling over lobate lava. Sediment 1.5 ñ 2.
1324 205 2684 x-5816 y-13740 Over lobate flow. Sediment age 1.5.
1325     Mainly lobes. But occasional sheets. Sediment age 2.5.
      More sheets. In lobate and sheets. Few pillows. Mainly lobate
      Tape 2 ñ Side A
1329 203 2667 x- 5020 y-14784. Over pillow lavas with lot of buds. Sediment thickness 1.5.
1330 200 2658 Large diameter pillows. Lot of buds. Sediment thickness 2 ñ 2.5.
1331 206 2657 Traveling in lobate flow now. Lobate with pillows..
1333 207 2654 Changed tapes in video cameras. Over pillows. Very coarse pllows. Sediment thickness difficult 1.5 ñ 2.
1335 209 2650 Pillow with lot of buds. We are on a slope here.

Still over pillows that seem to be sloping away from me with a hint of pillow elongation in that direction.

x-4950 y-14574. On pillows still sloping away from me. Large volume pillows with lots of buds. Sediment may be 2. A fault coming up.

1338   2654 x-4941 y-14549 The fault is below and disappearing.
1339 208 2658 Now into more lobate flow. Not sloping away any more. Sediment age ñ donít know ñ may be 2.
1340 207 2658 x- 4621 y-14492 Touching bottom. Now over lobate flow. Age 2.5.
1341 209 2658 x-4900 y-14450 Over pillow lava. Clearly a pillow lava. Lot of buds.
1342   2668 In coarse pillow lava dipping towards me. Direction of flow structures towards me ñ from right to left. Pillows with lot of buds. Age 2
    2659 Just touched bottom. x-4892 y-14406.
1344 207 2666 Over coarse pillows.
1346 211 2661 Over coarse pillows with lot of buds. Pillows dipping away from me.
    2659 Just touched bottom. x-4855 y-14289. Pillows clearly dipping away from me. Clearly an edge of a pillow flow sloping away from me.
1347 224 2659 Over pillows dipping away from me.
1348     Pillows not dipping away any more. Pillows with lot of buds.
1349 225 2660 Pillow lava. Flow direction down to my left??
1350   2657 x-4794 y-14224. Pillows. Sloping away from me??
1352   2656 x-4793 y-14896 Settling down to take sample.
1356     Putting sample into the basket. Sample 7 at way point 8. Going to waypoint 9
1359 170 2653 x-4786 y-14196. Traveling over pillow lava. Fair amount of biology. Pillows with lot of buds. Age 2 ñ occasional glass.
1401 171   Pillows dipping away from me. Flow direction in the pillows down and away. Pillows clearly heading away ro me.
1402     Pillows dipping more away from me. Beautiful lobelike structures down and following the slope of the hill.
1403     Still in pillow lava dipping away down to my right ñ often with clear flow structures parallel to the dip.
1404 171 2658 Over pillow lavas ñ down to my right ñ very nice elongated ones. Seems to be off the hill.
1405   2658 x-4832 y-14816.
1406 169 2661 Now into lobes and sheets. Now in lobes. Can see collapses. Over one small collapse.
1407   2662 Just crossing a fault about 0.5 m.
1408     Deepening away from me. Fault right below 2 m wide slight downthrow towards me. Bigger fault 6-7 m across.
1409 169 2671 Some distance down to bottom.
1410 169   Lobate lava. Flow structures cross our path not quite at right angle.
1411 170 2679 In lobate flows. Sediment 2 ñ 2.5.
1412     Lobate flow with folded sheet in between. Sediment cover 2.5.
1413   2679 Some geothermal staining in lobate flow. Sediment cover about 2.
1414 169 2681 Geothermal staining but looks dead. Over lobate with lot if buds. And with pillows. Lobates with pillows.
1415 172   Increasing amount of pillows. A fault, another (split fault). Now mainly pillows.
1417   2669 Over pillow lavas. Somewhat broken up with geothermal staining.
1418   2657  
1421   2664 Big dead chimney ñ a really big one. Heading towards waypoint 9.
1422 205 2663 Broken sheet flow below and rubble.
1424 203   I am over deep channel but Tracy shallow so we are right on the edge of something ñ either a lava channel or fault. I think this is lava channel. Can not see bottom clearly on my side. Clearly chimneys.
1426   2665 Seeing chimneys ñ stone dead. Sheet flows. Tectonic crack. Thick sediment cover. Big chimneys coming up. A whole forrest of dead chimneys. Flat sheet flows coming up at the bottom.
1428 204 2667 Sheet flow on the edge of a collapse to my right. Deep drop on my right.
1432   2672 Close to waypoint 9.
      Picked up a sample.
1435     On the edge of a big drop.
1436 205 2673 On the edge of the deep drop down ñ vertical drop but no bottom.
1437     Just over the edge.
1439 208 2686 No visibility. Beginning to see heavily sedimented bottom. Pillows or lobes??
    2689 Bottom is getting closer. Heavily sedimented pillow lava. Sediment age 3.
    2691 Close to the bottom. Just over the bottom.
1441 209   Now over pillow lava ñ with some lobes and buds.
1442 206 2693 Heavily sedimented pillows. Right above surface.
1443   2692 Traveling over pillows ñ with buds. Few lobes in between.
1444 220 2691 Pillows.
1445 220 2690 Now into lobates. Sloping away from me?? Into pillows with lot of buds and some lopes.
1445 222 2688 Over lobate. Sediment cover 2.5
1448   2678  
1449     Getting a fix.
1452 177 2686 Over mainly pillow lavas. Sediment age 2.5.
1453 178   Over pillow lava ñ sediment 2.5. Getting more like lobate lava.
1454     Over lobate with occasional pillows.
1455   2684 Just come to a wall. Over a lobate flow.
1457     A drop on my right. Traveling on the rim. Very rubbled sheet flow. A second drop down on my right. Sediment cover 2.5 on lobate lava.
1458 179 2680 A drop on my right. May be the same as before.
1459 179 2677 Broken up sheet flow. Less broken sheet flow.
1500     A drop. Walls and the floor all broken up. Can see some sheets in it. All rubble. Into less broken sheets. A wall in from of me made up of very thin sheets. There is a lava pillar on an edge of a collapse. A deep collapse on my side.
1503   2675 Further drops. Bottom is still some distance but seems to be lobate.
1504   2676 Pillows at the bottom now with buds.
1505   2678 Now in lobate. Another drop down. Looks tectonic. In pillows with buds and then into lobate flow.
1506   2681 In pillows
1508   2681 Just picked up a sample.
1510 214 2680 Over pillow lava with buds.
1511 216 2683 Over pillow lavas.
  213   Now in lobate lava. With pillows.
1512     Lobate flow.
1513 091   Over lobate flow with pillows. then more pillows than lobate.
      In talus ñ all broken up.
1514   2677 Still in talus
    2674 Still in talus.
1515   2668 Top of talus and now travelling up a vertical wall made of sheeted flows and pillows ñ both tens of cm in thickness. Nice cut pillows.
    2662 Broken pillows. now on an edge top of the cliff.
    2659 Heavily sedimented sheet flow. Sheet flows with collapses ñ more collapses. Deep drop with pillars on ledges on the down slope. In what looks like a lava lake.. Heavily sedimented sheet flow.
1517     Getting piece of a top of a pillar.
1519     Got the pillar piece on the edge of the lava lake.
1520   2642 Going up to the surface.
      x-4808 y-12884
      On the way up.