Dive 3350 - 9 Feb 1999

Ken Rubin (port side) transcript

Observers: Ken Rubin and Eric Bergmanis

Pilot: Bob Waters

Audio Tape 1 of 1 - Side A

note: items in italics not on audio tape. copied from in-sub dead reckoning worksheets or Alvin Video.
Time X Y Heading Depth (m) Comments
0801 693 -978 385 descent.
0815 695 -961 570 descent.




1000 Maggie spin.
0842 1494 Nav dropped out.

Time Heading Depth (m) Comments
0922 2698 ship fix 150m 181 from WP1. 23m off bottom
0924 184

Landing site:

On bottom. Striated pillow lavas with bread crust surfaces, age 1.5, light dusting of sediment, few small pockets here and there.

0925 181 2721 Mostly bulbous pillows age 1.5 with some buds seen, high relief sea floor (few meters locally), lots of small pillow mounds and deeps between them. No elongate pillows.
0929 2721 Looking for sample 1 close to landing site. Ship fix: 73m 32° to WP1. No NAV in sub.
0935 2731 Still looking for sample 1. Pillows with rare lobates.
0943 2729 Sample 3350-1 - piece of lobate (mis-spoke on tape) 15x15x? cm, Mn-oxide coating, triangular shaped.
0952 2729 Ship fix: 80m 038° to WP1. No NAV in sub.
0953 070 Underway to WP2
0956 073 2726 Moving to WP2. Estimated speed is 1 kt. In sedimented pillow region, both elongated and bulbous forms. Still high relief sea floor, lots of ornamentation on bulbous pillows. Sediment in semi-continuous pockets. Dominant orientation to elongated pillow forms is ~ 340°.
0959 073 2711 Flying 5m off bottom. Still in pillows. Slowly heading upslope.
1000 073 2709 Heading up stepped slope.
1001 069 2708 Heading up 5°slope of pillows. Some ornamentation, mostly elongated.
1003 071 2699 Ship fix: 980m 68° from WP2.
1005 071 2692 Local summit of steep-sided hill of bulbous pillows. Same sediment age
1007 069 2700 Similar pillow terrain, bottom sloping away from us. Smaller lobates intermixed with bulbous and elongated pillows with good striations. Age 1.5. Hill is big mound of pillows. No evidence yet of fissures.
1009 069 2706 Moving uphill again on heading of 069°. Map predictions are working.
1010 070 2705 Pillows, somewhat less relief to the sea floor. Smaller pillows. Transitional to lobates. Ascending second of two N-S humps that make up ridge axis in this area. Driving over a deep, narrow fissure, trending ~030° to the sub (090° absolute). Could see ~2m down to bottom, 15 cm across. Sediment cover is still the same.
1013 067 2699 Going up steeper slope, picking up more fissures. Just passed another N-S fissure, 0.5m wide (said trend was 330 from sub = 040 absolute but I am skeptical of this). Could see >2m down to bottom. Slightly less sediment cover here. Can see shimmering off glass surfaces. Elongate and ornamented bulbous pillows but transitional into lobates.
1014 069 2694 More fissures. Transitioning up steep slope into pure lobate flows. 10m of shallowing should remain until reaching eastern axis summit.
1015 068 2688 Some fissures are wider and deeper. Can see 6m down one to bottom. 2 to 3 m across. Shelly crusts on lobates, spillout from lobate observed. Still some striated pillows evident.
1016 to 1016.5 069 2686 Another two fissures: 0.5m and 1m across. Somewhat of a sinuous lineation. Could see down it pretty far. Also seeing collapses in lobates with jumbled surface in bottom (talus - no flow exiting it).
1017? 070 2686 Another fissure, heading is ~340°, >1 sub length across, 6m down to floor in part, then drops even further on eastern edge. Mesotech image being recorded on video.
1018 069 2685 Another very deep fissure cutting lobates. Ridge up center that is lower than two sides. Age 1 lava? Series of deep parallel fissures, can't see bottom. Walls difficult to see but it looks to be a series of shelly lobate flows, mostly uncollapsed. Flow surfaces fractured near fissures.
1019 069 2687 Passed over significant number of fissures. Looking for sample from lobates here. Fissures affecting depth reading?
1020 070 2690 Fissure significantly wider than the sub. Crossing it ~perpendicular.
1022 2693 More fissures. Alvin video shows young lava flooring a fissure into old lobate lavas. Looking for sample of older lobates. Anenomies on lavas.
1023 Alvin video shows very clearly that the young lava is ponded right up against the edge of a fissure but does not spill into it.
1024 117 2692 Looking for sample. Now over lobate lava that looks much younger and less sedimented. Spaghetti worms on younger flow. Big collapse pit to port side. Can see bottom but looks like 8-10m deep. Can see stacked older lobates in the walls. 5-10 cm thick. Flow contact.
1027 2693 In collapse pit of lobates.
1031 Sample 3350-2 into basket 1a. Fist-sized piece of lobate crust. Area is covered with spaghetti worms. 10-20m from contact from fissured lobates. Lobates looked younger than pillows we saw earlier.
1032 064 Underway again.
1033 2694 Spaghetti worms plus small brown-green animals with little heads of 2-5 cm tall (barnicles?). Lavas look to be age 1. Seeing individual mussels in places. No clusters. Diffuse flow site?.




Transiting out of Spaghetti worm area. Lava morphllogy is now lobates with occasional pillows. Ornamented buds. Low relief sea floor. Somewhat more sedimented. Flow Contact back into age 1.5 lavas, meaning young material was a thin sliver on this sub traverse.
1037 Hydrothermal staining on lobates. No spaghtti worms. Limited biology. Elongate 5m long breadcrust striated pillows. Lobates as well.
1039 010 2698

Moving slowly looking for sample 3 in lobate/pillow terrain. Localized hydrothermal staining. Both Fe-oxide and whitish staining in spots.

Alvin video clearly shows that we are skirting back and forth over a contact between younger and older flows between time 1039 and 1053.

1044 2699

Flow Contact back into young lavas.

Sample 3350-3 - 2 pieces. Smallish lobate bud into basket #1b; larger piece into basket 4 with sample 1. Very different looking materials so no problem. This sample appears to be from the younger material, based on appearance and phenocryst content.

1046 067 2697 Underway to WP2. No sub nav.
1047 2699 Ship fix that says we are ~200m at 073° from WP2.
1049 Alvin Nav: 204m at 080° from WP2.
1050 076 2700 Relatively young lobates, age 1.
1051 2702 More biology: crabs (Galatheates according to Bob), anenomaes, sponges, stuff floating in the water, pretty limited in terms of biomass.
1053 2706 Out area with enhanced biology; still in lobates with now some pillows. Age. Have crested eastern limb of axis?
1054 075 2706 More pillows, greater sediment cover along a gradient towards off axis.
1055 2711 Sedimented pillows with bread crust-striated surfaces. Mostly bulbous pillows. 3m long one. More relief to sea floor 5m of vertical relief within pillow mounds.
1056 076 2716 Back into age 1.5 lobates, same sediment cover. Maybe a tiny bit less. Transition into a small collpase. Jumbled-hacked lobate surface on flow with less sediment cover again.
1058 075 2715 On a local high of jumbled sheet flow. Looking for next sample
1104 2718 Sample 3350-4 being taken from jumbled sheet flow.
1106 2718 Ship fix 100m past WP2
1108 003 2718 Underway to WP3 on new heading,
1109 345 Jumbled sheet flow. Age 1 - 1.5 glistening glass surface. No biology.
1111 344 2713 Jumbled sheet flow.
1112 2713 Ship fix: 1538m 340° to WP3
1113 2712 Lots more biology again: Crabs, worms in the water column, puffy animals on a little stalk, starfish. Age <1 to jumbled sheet floor. No sediment. Surface of sheet flow is rubbly, hackled, undulating on top. Small pits and rises, no lineation directions.
1116 Cluster of greater extent of biology. Lots of mussels in local spots. Generally jumbled sheet flow with some tabular sheets.
1117 2711 Active high temp. hydrothermal area in a collapse in the flow surface.
1118 073 2711 Active hydrothermal chimney. Main chimney is in front of sub at heading of 073°. Height of chimney is 6-10 m? Black smoker. Most activity on chimney is from small spires near base. Top is mostly inactive but there is shimmering water around it. Multiple generations of growth are evident. Second active smoker identified to starboard.
1120 090 2708 Heading toward second, much more active chimney. Lots of black smoke. First chimney is on port side. Lots of mussels in the area. See about a dozen fish all swimming in same direction near base of chimney on 3 chip. Also took some handheld digital stills of them.
End of Alvin & 3 Chip Videos 1 of 3; Start of Alvin video 2. 3 Chip on for a moment then shut off. Not on until 1210.
1123 Still at second chimney.
1130 345 2708 Underway again from vent site. No samples. Tourist stop. Hackled sheet flow beneath us. Lots of biology at base of chimneys.
1134 Flow Contact: Young hackled sheet flows (with anenomaes, starfish) transitional to lobates into age 1.5 pillows. Crossing between eastern and western fissure zones? High temperature vents must have been on Eastern zone.
1135 354 2713 Local area of very high sediment deposition. Only tops of pillows and extinct chimney-lets poking out. Dead vent site where the chimneys have turned mostly to orange sediment.
1137.5 347 2712 Sedimented elongated pillows. Some ornamentation. Small ridge to port. Spill out from pillow. Age 1.5. In between Eastern and Western "fissure" zones.
1140 347 2706 Sedimented lobates with occasional pillows. No biology. Age 1.5
1141 2706 Heading up a small hill in age 1.5 pillows. Ornamented bulbous pillows.
1144 347 2694 Moving upslope. Lobates transitional to pillows. Age 1.5. At crest of axis between Eastern and Western fissure zones?
1145 348 2691 White Octopus.
1146 347 2689 More elongate pillows. Moving upslope again.
1147 Ship fix: 834m 325°to WP3. Small fissures (~10-15 cm across) on Alvin video.
1149 327 2682 My estimate: 750 m from WP3. In age 1.5 pillows transitional to lobates. More small fissures on Alvin video.
1151.5 2680 Picking up spaghetti worms on flow. Moving from old pillows into young lobates. Flow Contact. Confirmed seen on Alvin and 3 Chip videos.
1153 to 1154 Large Clam bed. Most of them are dead. Also some dead mussels. Barnacles on rocks. Lots of biology. Terrain is littered with clam shells. Almost no bear rock visible but what is has some hydrothermal staining. Lava age 1. Inactive diffuse flow site?
1154 322 2688 Out of clam bed. Can see flow better now. Same age as pre-clam bed lobates. White staining on some rocks.
1155 2688 Seeing both lobates and pillows. Flow Contact. Young lobates into old pillows on Alvin and 3 Chip videos.
1156 324 2687 Going upslope again in older pillows (~350 m from WP3). Fissures.
1158 340 2681 Seeing large collapses and fissures heading ~N-S.
1159 326 2679 Moving upslope again to WP3 in older pillow terrain. Age is solid 1.5
1200 321 2677 Big fissure going at tend of 010 to sub (~ N-S). Seeing swarm of deep fissures. Walls look to be lobates. Can't see bottoms. Age 1.5 lobates, dusting of sediment on all surfaces, some sediment in pockets. Also seeing some localized fissure-perpendicular cross-cutting collapses.
1201 325 2679 Another deep 2m wide fissure in lobates. Seeing uncollapsed lobates in the wall. Fissures occur in swarms between 10 m wide zones of undisrupted lobates. Corrected earlier impression on tape of dead musseld bed as being somewhat east of Western fissure zone.
1202 to 1203 2682 Ship fix: 400m 325° to WP3 (Tape says heading 375° but I corrected myself on tape side B). Just passed into another area of dead mussels in age 1.5 pillow lavas. Inactive diffuse flow site?

Audio Tape 1 of 1 - Side B
Time Heading Depth (m) Comments
1203 329 2688 Old sedimented bulbous pillows. Outside of bio area but still seeing mussel debris hear and there.
1208 328 2692 Fissured bulbous pillows. Striations on pillows, age = 1.5. Can see pillow forms in wall of 0.5m wide fissure, which is trending roughly N-S.
1210 328 2685 Old pillows, age 1.5, no biology. No Nav yet. Start of 3 Chip tape 2.
1212 327 2682 Old pillows, age 1.5.
1214 2688 small fissure, 10 cm across. Crinoid in fissure.
1215 327 2683 Going upslope again. My DR puts us 100m from WP3. Age 1.5 pillows transitional to shelly lobates, some collapsed with little drainouts.
1216 329 2678 Ship has us at WP3. (40 m past). We are still going upslope and WP3 is on a local high, so we feel our DR is better.
1218 328 2675 At WP3 by DR, heading to WP4. Area of dark sea floor in side scan is older pillows. Rough sea floor. Ship fix: 900m 082° to WP4.
1218.5 Turn to WP4


X 1415

Y 976

2684 Same terrain, heading downslope.
1221 071 2690 Going uphill again (local depression). Crossing over very deep fissure trending N-S (can't see bottom). Truncated pillows in walls. Right next to this is a small depression with very sedimented pillows and small extinct chimneys. There is an orange hydrothermal component to sediment. Extinct high temperature hydrothermal vent site.


X 1507

Y 1003

2683 Age 1.5 pillows and fissures. Small pillow spillout forming a 1m wide sheet flow. Must be crossing complex relief area on sidescan again.
1224 088 2682 Another fissure, 0.5m accross. Couldn't see bottom.

X 1591

Y 1010

2682 Deep fissure, 1m across


X 1642

Y 1019

2680 Swarm of small, 10cm across fissure in pillows transitional to lobate lavas. Age 1.5
1227 089 2679 Lobate lavas, Age 1 or slightly older. Looks like distal end of Animal Farm flow that we saw to the north on dive 3346. Looking for a sample.
1229 2680 stopping to take sample 5.
1231 2680 Moving on/did not take sample (too difficult due to kicked up sediment)
1233 081 2678 Underway for 2 minutes, looking for age 1-1.5 lobate sample. No shimmering of glass from beneath sediment.
1235 100 2679 Lobates, although much more hackled surface locally. Stopping again for sample 5 in collapse. Large collapse sheets and jumbled up terrain.

X 1732

Y 1024

2677 Sample 3350-5 - Crust from lobate lava, into basket 8. Large, tabular piece. 25 cm in longest direction, triangular in shape.
1239 083 2676 Passed over another two very deep fissures. Got one on Cit-camera.
1241 2680 Lobate lavas, age 1-1.5, looks like animal farm. Seeing lots of closely-space small fissures (10cm across, <1m apart). Also seeing a large fissure. Surface of lobates between fissures is hackled and broken up. Flow is tectonized by fissures in local areas but returns to normal-looking animal farm lobates just a 2-3 m from fissures.
1244 084 2687 Age 1.5 lobate lavas, picking up a few crabs, anenomaes, plenty of fissures too. Are eastern/western fissure swarms continuous here?
1246 082 2689 Entering another mussel bed right next to another N-S trending fissure. Seeing a few Spaghetti worms, mussels and crabs. Diffuse flow site. Flow contact: into relatively young looking lobate lavas transitional to sheets with a hackled surface and almost no sediment on them (age 1).
1248 075 2689 Stopping for sample 6. Settling into small collapse (0.5m deep) in a lobate. Lots of anenomaes. Lava looks young (age 1).

X 1992

Y 1078

2690 Sample 3350-6 - Into basket 5b. Lobate crust, 5cm thick, triangular in shape, 25 cm in length, digital picture #10. Ship fix: 250m 088° to WP4
1253 Large quantity of mussel and clams debris on sea floor, lots of dead, open shells. Living crabs around, fish and shrimps in the water; anenomaes on the lava. Similar to past approaches to bio sites.
1254 Stopping again for mussel sample just a few m away from rock sample 6 site. Lot's of live mussels put into bio box. Diffuse hydrothermal flow site, should be ~250m from WP4. Just over the Eastern fissure zone? On all 3 crossings we see young lavas, lots of biology, and on second of 3 crossings we saw the high temperature hydrothermal vent site.
1256 2690 Sample 3350-7 - into bio box. Lot's of live mussels, one crab.
1303 080 2689 Underway from mussel station. Passing into another area of lots of mussels and clams, new diffuse flow site is east of sample 7 locale. Lot's of anenomaes and barnacles growing up from the rocks.
1306 080 2687 Out of bio area. Lobate lavas with localized white staining on surfaces, age 1 (limited sediment cover - but older than young flow in the south).
1308 080 2691 to 2692 Lobate into pillow transition. More sediment here but really a smooth transition. Still seeing glistening of glass from lava surface. Near WP4. Looks just like northern area at edge of axis: lobates transitional to pillows, picking up more sediment in a gradient.
1309.7 082 2693 Flow contact: Young lobates into Age 1.5 pillows seen on Alvin Video.
1314 114 2706 Age 1.5 pillows seen on Alvin video.

Time X Y Heading Depth (m) Comments
1315 2349 1141 2710 At WP4, lobates and sheets (ship fix: 50m 125°). Age 1.5. Stopped for a sample.
1318 295 2714 Looked for a sample without success. Will slowly make for WP5 and sample asap.
1319 290 Ship fix 850m out from WP5



2714 Stopping for sample 8 in collapsed sheet flow transitional to lobates. Got small lava pillar with linear features on it (~2m high, 10-15 cm across on top, with lobate crust) off to port side. Some sediment in water being kicked up by the sub.
1326 Sample 3350-8 - into basket 5a. 25-30cm x 10 cm long tooth-shapped piece of lobate crust with Fe staining on it in criss-cross patterns.
1329 280 2712 Underway again to WP5. No nav yet.
1332 2704 Traversing bulbous pillow terrain transitional to lobates, same age as recent lobates. Ornamented with buds. No elongate pillows. Can clearly see pillow above lobate at base (stratigraphically same or younger).
1333 Alvin and 3 Chip videos number 2 end here.
1336 Alvin Nav: 674m 284° to WP4
1338 2150 1139 2689 Flow Contact: Age 1.5 pillows into young lobates.
1339 294 2687 Lobates, age 1?
1341 292 2686 Lobates, some small collapses (where just crust has dropped in). Lava looks younger. Age 1.25. No biota. Roughly halfway to WP5.
1342 292 2687 Seeing a few Spaghetti worms (diffuse hydrothermal flow site?) Transitioning. Lobates and striated pillows. At eastern fissures again?
1344 Lobates with hackled surface, some linear features roughly parallel to sub heading. Passing over a small fissure trending N-S.
1344.3 1999 1194 293 2686 Flow Contact: young lobates into age 1.5 pillows.
1345 second very narrow fissure. Can't see bottom. Cuts cleanly through flow. Can see lobates in the wall. Age = 1 to 1.25. Also a 1m wide, very deep fissures.
1347 2681 Back into more sedimented lobates with large fissures. Western fissure swarm.
1349 2683 looking for sample 9 in fissured lobates. stopping sub.
1351 1911 1223 2683 Sample 3350-9 - lobate crust into basket 3b, digital photo #12.
1353 1907 1230 290 2678 Underway for 1 minute. 364m 296° from WP5, starting to get some Nav. fixes in the sub. Passed over another fissure that appeared to be a fault. Bob and Eric feel that there was vertical offset across the fault. High side of fault was to the west, 3m offset.
1355 1867 1243 293 2678 Ship fix: 350m 300° from WP5. Alvin fix etc from video.
1357 290 2674 Lobates, age 1-1.5, older than eastern axis, crossing fissures and faults. Seeing small collapses. Heavily tectonized surfaces, lots of broken surfaces.
1358 1798 1266 293 2676 Stuff from Alvin video.
1359 2677 Lobates, age = 1.5. Passed out of fissure area?
1400 301 2679 0.5 m fissure, too deep to see bottom. Lobates
1401 302 2678 Transitioning into pillows. Still see fissures. Maybe turn here and bipass WP5?
1402 1674 1339 303 2680 Crossing very large fissure (>10m across, can't see bottom). Can see pillows and lobates in the wall. Mostly pillowed surface of age 1-1.5, good bread crust striations. We are still in Western Fissure Zone.
1403 075 2682 ~100m from WP5. Turining to WP6. Age 1-1.5 ornamented pillows.
1404 1643 1355 075 2682 Stuff from Alvin video.
1405 Getting transponder fixes. Western boundary of fissures contains faults with vertical offsets of a few meters.
1405.8 1671 1364 2681 Nav fix.
1406.6 1768 1395 075 2677 Alvin video shows us passing over large fissure.
1409 1772 1400 2676 Lobates, hackled surface. East of Western fissures? Seeing some local collapses. Lobates look to be age 1-1.5. Is this the animal farm flow? Lobate collapses have crenulated surfaces around the pits, rubble on bottoms. Trend in many directions. Pits are ~2m deep.



1415 078 2675 Crossed another N-S fissure. Fissures every few m. Are these Eastern Fissures?
1412 1869 1422 078 2674 Another fissure. Flow surfaces of age 1.5 lobates are very broken up. Large crinoid down in fissure.
1414 2678 Another fissure.
1417 1787 1505 2684 Another narrow (10 cm across) N-S fissure.
1418 082 2684

Seeing crabs and fish again. Definitely younger looking lobate lavas. Just gone over contact again. Mussels and clams are seen in the distance.

Flow Contact: Age 1.5 lobates into younger lobates.




1814 (bad) 2685 Crabs and anenomaes strewn about. Not a large concentration but lots of them around. Not many mussels. Diffuse flow site?
1423 Sample 3350-10 - into basket 9. Piece of young lobate crust with white worms on bottom. 25 cm in length. Triangular shaped. Diffuse flow site, saw shimmering water on Alvin video. Is this the eruptive fissure?
1424 082 In younger lavas covered with Spaghetti worms and smaller white worms. Looks like young flow; Bob sees mussels ahead. Sea floor transitions quickly into being covered with biology.
1428 083 2690 Out of biological area in lobate flow with occasional budded pillows. Area of biology appeared as a sliver in center of this flow. Pretty clear kipuka on Alvin Video. Flow Contact: younger lobates into age 1.5 lobates.






Over relatively young lobates transitioning quickly into lineated sheets. Lineations trend less than perpendicular to the sub. Ship fix: 310m 096°; Alvin fix is 344m same heading to WP6.

Flow Contact: Age 1.5 lobates into younger lobates.

1432 84 Then moved in curtain folded and locally jumbled sheet flow. Overall trend is 225° relative to sub (310° absolute).
1433 Trying to get one last sample. Almost out of battery power.
1434 2365 1517 2699 Stop for sample.
1438 Sample 3350-11 - into basket 3a, small piece of sheet flow. About 300 m from WP6
1439 2693 Off bottom. Can see in Alvin video as we ascend that this sample site is at the edge of a collapse.

Additional Nav Points taken from Alvin Video for sub track rendering:

Time X Y Heading Depth (m)
1212.5 1493 805 2680
1219 1389 967 2678
1232.5 1706 1023 2679
1238.4 1754 1025 2677
1239.6 1775 1029 2677
1240 1781 1029 2677
1245 1913 1051
1259 2004 1079
1300 2037 1077
1303 2005 1078 2690
1304.5 2020 1079 2690
1304.7 2021 1082 2689
1308.6 2133 1104 2691
1309.6 2167 1111 2695
1310.3 2197 1115 2696
1310.6 2202 1117 2696
1311 2214 1118 2697
1311.6 2228 1124 2698
1312 2251 1123 2699
1313 2301 1134 2702
1325 2154 1220