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Data deficiencies are typical of fisheries problems - this fishery is no exception.
One of these deficiencies is the low level of catch reporting by participants. It is difficult to know the number of participants, the amount of fishing effort applied, and the total catch landed with much confidence.
Hawaii-based longline vessels occasionally fished at Cross for many years prior to the development of the handline fishery in 1976. The level of participation remained fairly constant until the mid 1980s. In the late 1980s the fishery expanded by a factor of 4.