|2 of 16|
|Full Text + Links|
|PDF (1636 K)|
|Save as Citation Alert|
Contrasting the Indian and East Asian monsoons: implications on geologic timescales
Bin Wang, , a, b, Steven C. Clemensc and Ping Liub, 1
a Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA
b International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA
c Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
Accepted 19 June 2003. ; Available online 30 August 2003.
Bin Wang, , a, b, Steven C. Clemensc and Ping Liub, 1
The surface winds over the Arabian Sea and South China Sea are meaningful indicators for the strength of the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon, respectively. Paleo-monsoon variability has been studied through analysis of sediment records from these two monsoon regions. To facilitate interpretation of these records, we focus on the impacts of `internal' and `external' forcing of the monsoon system by contrasting the annual cycle and interannual variability of two subsystems: the monsoon over the Indian sector (40–105°E) and over the East Asian sector (105–160°E). Differences in the annual cycle within these subsystems arise primarily from the different land–ocean configurations that determines atmospheric response to the solar forcing. Thus factors that drive intensities of the monsoonal annual cycle share common features with the external (geographic and orbital) forcing that controls paleo-monsoon variability. We show that the differences in interannual variations between the two monsoon subsystems are primarily due to internal factors of the coupled atmosphere–ocean–land system, such as remote impacts of El Niño/La Niña and local monsoon–ocean interactions. The mechanisms that operate on interannual to interdecadal timescales may differ fundamentally from that on geologic/orbital timescales. The low-level flows over the East Asia and Australia are essentially established by geographic forcing. The amplification of the Australia summer monsoon during increased solar precession is likely caused by an enhanced East Asian winter monsoon, rather than following an enhanced Indian summer monsoon as on the interannual timescale. It is also found that El Niño influences the low-level flow moderately over the Arabian Sea but to a greater extent over the South China Sea. As such, large changes in the Pacific thermal conditions may significantly alter the intensity of the East Asian monsoon but not the Indian monsoon.
Author Keywords: Indian monsoon; East Asian–Australian monsoon; geographic forcing; orbital forcing; monsoon–ocean interaction; ENSO forcing
An and Wang, 2001. S.-I. An and B. Wang, Mechanisms of locking the El Niño/La Niña mature phases to boreal winter. J. Clim. 14 (2001), pp. 2164–2176. Abstract-OceanBase | Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document
Clemens and Prell, 1990. S.C. Clemens and W.L. Prell, Late Pleistocene variability of Arabian Sea summer monsoon winds and continental aridity: Eolian records from the lithogenic componenet of deep-sea sediments. Paleoceanography 5 (1990), pp. 109–145. Abstract-INSPEC | Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document
Clemens et al., 1991. S.C. Clemens, W.L. Prell, D.W. Murray, G. Shimmield and G. Weedon, Forcing mechanisms of the Indian Ocean monsoon. Nature 353 (1991), pp. 720–725. Abstract-INSPEC | Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef
Clemens et al., 1996. S.C. Clemens, D.W. Murray and W.L. Prell, Nonstationary phase of the PlioPleistocene Asian monsoon. Science 274 (1996), pp. 943–948. Abstract-INSPEC | Abstract-Compendex | Abstract-GEOBASE | Abstract-EMBASE | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef
Clement et al., 1999. A.C. Clement, R. Seøger and M.A. Cane, Orbital controls on the El Niño/southern oscillation and the tropical climate. Palaeoceanography 14 (1999), pp. 441–456. Abstract-OceanBase | Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef
Davey et al., 2002. M.K. Davey, M. Huddleston, K.R. Sperber, P. Braconnot, F. Bryan, D. Chen, R.A. Colman, C. Cooper, U. Cubasch, P. Delecluse, D. DeWitt, L. Fairhead, G. Flato, C. Gordon, T. Hogan, M. Ji, M. Kimoto, A. Kitoh, T.R. Knutson, M. Latif, H. LeTreut, T. Li, S. Manabe, C.R. Mechoso, G.A. Meehl, S.B. Power, E. Roeckner, L. Terray, A. Vintzileos, R. Voss, B. Wang, W.M. Washington, I. Yoshikawa, J.Y. Yu, S. Yukimoto and S.E. Zebiak, STOIC: A study of coupled model climatology and variability in tropical ocean region. Clim. Dyn. 18 (2002), pp. 403–420. Abstract-GEOBASE | Abstract-INSPEC | Abstract-OceanBase | $Order Document
Kalnay et al., 1996. E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, A. Leetmaa, B. Reynolds, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K.C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, R. Jenne and D. Joseph, The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77 (1996), pp. 437–471. Abstract-GEOBASE | Abstract-INSPEC | $Order Document
Krishnamurti and Bhalme, 1976. T.N. Krishnamurti and H.N. Bhalme, Oscillations of a monsoon system. Part I: Observational aspects. J. Atmos. Sci. 33 (1976), pp. 1937–1954. Abstract-Compendex | Abstract-INSPEC | $Order Document
Krishnamurti et al., 1985. Krishnamurti, T.N., Surge, N., Manobianco, J., 1985. Annual cycle of the monsoon over the global tropics. WMO world climate research programme publications Ser. 4, WMO TD65, Part IV-I-IV-21.
Kumar et al., 1999. K.K. Kumar, B. Rajagopalan and M.A. Cane, On the weakening relationship between Indian monsoon and ENSO. Science 284 (1999), pp. 2156–2159. Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef
Kutzbach and Guetter, 1984. Kutzbach, J.E., Guetter, P.J., 1984. The sensitivity of monsoon climates to orbital parameter changes for 9000 years B.P.: Experiments with the NCAR GCM. In: Berger, A., Imbrie, J., Hays, J., Kukla, G., Sultzman, B. (Eds.), Milankovitch and Climate: Understanding the Response to Astronomical Forcing. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 801–820.
Lau and Weng, 2001. K.-M. Lau and H. Weng, Coherent modes of global SST and summer rainfall over China: An assessment of the regional impacts of the 1997–1998 El Niño. J. Clim. 14 (2001), pp. 1294–1308. Abstract-INSPEC | Abstract-OceanBase | Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document
Latif et al., 2001. M. Latif, K. Sperber, J. Arblaster, P. Braconnot, D. Chen, A. Colman, U. Cubasch, C. Cooper, P. Delecluse, D. Dewitt, L. Fairhead, G. Flato, T. Hogan, M. Ji, M. Kimoto, A. Kitoh, T. Knutson, H. LeTreut, T. Li, S. Manabe, O. Marti, C. Mechoso, G. Meehl, S. Power, E. Roeckner, J. Sirven, L. Terray, A. Vintzileos, R. Voß, B. Wang, W. Washington, I. Yoshikawa, J. Yu and S. Zebiak, ENSIP: the El Niño simulation intercomparison project. Clim. Dyn. 18 (2001), pp. 255–276. Abstract-GEOBASE | Abstract-INSPEC | Abstract-OceanBase | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef
McBride et al., 1995. J.L. McBride, N.E. Davidson, K. Puri and G.C. Tyrell, The flow during TOGA COARE as diagnosed by the BMRC tropical analysis and prediction system. Mon. Wea. Rev. 123 (1995), pp. 717–736.
Meehl, 1987. G.A. Meehl, The annual cycle and interannual variability in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean region. Mon. Wea. Rev. 115 (1987), pp. 27–50. Abstract-INSPEC | Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document
Overpeck et al., 1996. J.T. Overpeck, S. Trumbore and W.L. Prell, The southwest Indian monsoon over the last 18,000 years. Clim. Dyn. 12 (1996), pp. 213–225. Abstract-GEOBASE | Abstract-INSPEC | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef
Prell et al., 1992. Prell, W.L., Murray, D.W., Clemens, S.C., Anderson, D.M., 1992. Evolution and variability of the Indian Ocean summer monsoon: Evidence from the western Arabian Sea drilling program. In: Duncan, R.A., et al. (Ed.), The Indian Ocean: A Synthesis of Results from the Ocean Drilling Program. Am. Geophys. Union, Washington, DC, pp. 447–469.
Reynolds and Smith, 1994. R.W. Reynolds and T.M. Smith, Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation. J. Clim. 7 (1994), pp. 929–948. Abstract-INSPEC | Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document
Saji et al., 1999. N.H. Saji, B.N. Goswami, P.N. Vinayachandran and T. Yamagata, A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature 401 (1999), pp. 360–363. Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | Abstract-GEOBASE | Abstract-OceanBase | Abstract-INSPEC | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef
Schulz et al., 1998. H. Schulz, U. von Rad and H. Erienkeuser, Correlation between Arabian Sea and Greenland climate oscillations of the past 110,000 years. Nature 393 (1998), pp. 54–57. Abstract-OceanBase | Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | Abstract-GEOBASE | Abstract-INSPEC | $Order Document
Shimmield et al., 1990. G.B. Shimmield, S.R. Mowbray and G.P. Weedon, A 350 ka history of the Indian Southwest Monsoon – evidence from deep-sea cores, northwest Arabian Sea. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. 81 (1990), pp. 289–299. Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document
Sirocko, 1991. F. Sirocko, Deep-sea sediments of the Arabian Sea: A paleoclimatic record of the southwest-Asain summer monsoon. Geol. Rundsch. 80 (1991), pp. 557–566. Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document
Tao and Chen, 1987. Tao, S., Chen, L., 1987. A review of recent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China. In: Chang, C.P., Krisnamurti, T.N. (Eds.), Monsoon Meteorology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 60–92.
Trenberth et al., 2000. K.E. Trenberth, D.P. Stepaniak and J.M. Caron, The global monsoon as seen through the divergent atmospheric circulation. J. Clim. 13 (2000), pp. 3969–3993. Abstract-INSPEC | Abstract-Compendex | Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document
Tziperman et al., 1998. E.L. Tziperman, M.A. Cane, S.E. Zebiak, Y. Xue and B. Blumenthal, Locking El Nino's peak time to the end of the calendar yearin the delayed oscillator picture of ENSO. J. Clim. 11 (1998), pp. 2191–2199. Abstract-OceanBase | Abstract-GEOBASE | Abstract-INSPEC | $Order Document
Wang and Chan, 2002. B. Wang and J.C.L. Chan, How Strong ENSO Events affect tropical storm activity over the western North Pacific. J. Clim. 15 (2002), pp. 1643–1658. Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document
Wang et al., 2001. B. Wang, R. Wu and K.M. Lau, Interannual variability of Asian summer monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and Western North Pacific–East Asian monsoons. J. Clim. 14 (2001), pp. 4073–4090. Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document
Wang et al., 1999. L. Wang, M. Sarnthein, H. Erlenkeuser, J. Grimalt, P. Grootes, S. Heilig, E. Ivanova, M. Kienast, C. Pelejero and U. Pflaumann, East Asian monsoon climate during the Late Pleistocene: High-resolution sediment records from the South China Sea. Mar. Geol. 156 (1999), pp. 245–284. Abstract | PDF (4825 K)
Webster et al., 1998. P.J. Webster, V.O. Magana, T.N. Palmer, J. Shukla, R.A. Tomas, M. Yanai and T. Yasunari, Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. J. Geophys. Res. 103 (1998), pp. 14451–14510. Abstract-INSPEC | Abstract-GEOBASE | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef
Xie and Arkin, 1997. P. Xie and P.A. Arkin, Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates and numerical model outputs. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (1997), pp. 2539–2558.
1 Also affiliated with LASG/Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 100029. The International Pacific Research Center is sponsored in part by the Frontier Research System for Global Change.
Volume 201, Issues 1-3 , 30 September 2003, Pages 5-21
Asian Monsoons and Global Linkages on Milankovitch and Sub-Milankovitch Time Scales
|2 of 16|
Send feedback to ScienceDirect