Department of Meteorology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
The anomalous Philippine Sea anticyclone (PSAC) conveys impacts of El Niño to east Asian climate during the mature and decay of an El Niño (from the winter to ensuing summer). It is shown that the anomalous PSAC forms in fall about one season prior to the peak El Niño; its strength increases with the El Niño intensity and its sign reverses during a La Niña. The PSAC formation concurs with abnormal deepening of the east Asian trough and with increasing number of northward recurvature of tropical storms in the western Pacific. The PSAC establishment is abrupt, coupling with a swing from a wet to dry phase of an intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and often concurrent with early retreat of the east Asian summer monsoon. The ISO becomes inactive after PSAC establishment.
The development of the PSAC is attributed to combined effects of the remote El Niño forcing, tropical每extratropical interaction, and monsoon每ocean interaction. The developing El Niño induces off-equatorial ascending Rossby wave responses and land surface cooling in northeast Asia; both deepen the east Asian trough in fall and induces vigorous tropical每extratropical exchange of air mass and heat, which enhances the cold air outbreak and initiation of the PSAC. Through exciting descending Rossby waves, the El Niño每induced Indonesian subsidence generates low-level anticyclonic vorticity over south Asia, which is advected by mean monsoon westerly, instigating the anomalous PSAC. The ISO interacting with the underlying ocean plays a critical role in the abrupt establishment of PSAC. The wind每evaporation/entrainment feedback tends to amplify (suppress) ISO before (after) winter northeasterly monsoon commences, suggesting the roles of atmosphere每ocean interaction and the seasonal march of background winds in changing the Philippine Sea ISO intensity and maintaining PSAC.