GG 711:  Advanced Techniques in Geophysics and Materials Science

Location:                POST 702                  Time:   Mon, Wed 2:30pm - 4:00pm
Text book:               
A. Putnis, Introduction to Mineral Sciences (Cambridge University  Press, Cambridge, 1992).
Instructor:                Shiv Sharma,   (808) 956-8476      HIG-409

Instructor:                 Anupam Misra,


Week                            Lecture Topics


Part I :  Fundamentals of Light Microscopy: Microstructure Characterization 

08/22/11            Introduction. Conventional Optical Microscopy: Ray Optics Approach (pdf file)

08/25/10            Magnification and Resolution in Optical Microscopy (pdf file)

08/29/11            Conventional and Confocal Optical Microscopies: Wave Optics Approach    (pdf file)

09/01/11            Fourier Optics and 3-D Image Formation in Confocal Microscopy  (pdf file) 

09/05/11             Labor Day

09/08/11            Laboratory visit and experiments: How to build an compound microscope on the optical table.


Section II:  Raman Spectroscopy: Characterization of Chemical Bondings

09/12/11           Spectroscopy: The overall view (pdf file)

09/15/11            Atomic Spectra  (pdf file)

09/19/11            Vibrational Spectroscopy: The overall view (pdf file)

09/22/11            Raman  Spectroscopy: The Principles (pdf file)

09/26/11            Raman spectroscopy laboratory visit and experiments (Anupam Misra)

10/03/11             Application of Infrared Spectroscopy in Geophysics and Materials Science (pdf file)

10/06/11             Remote Raman Spectroscopy  (pdf file)

10/10/11           Remote Raman Spectroscopy Laboratory visit and experiments (Anupam Misra)

10/13/11             Confocal Raman Microscopy   (pdf file) 


EXAM I: Monday, October  17th

                Questions (MS Word file)


Part III:   Fundamentals of Electron Microscopy: Nanostructure Characterization

10/20/11           Principles of Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopies (pdf file)

10/24/11           Principles of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (pdf file)

10/26/11          Microanalysis in electron microscopy (EDS and EELS) (pdf file)

10/31/11           SEM Laboratory visit and experiments  (Kazuhide Nagashima). Manual (written by J.Roth & G.Yogodzinski) (pdf file) 


Part IV:  X-ray Diffraction Techniques: Atomic Structure Determination

11/03/11             Physics of X-ray Diffraction:  Powder Diffraction (Pavel Zinin) (pdf file)

11/7/11              Physics of X-ray Diffraction: Diffraction from Crystals (Pavel Zinin) (pdf file)

11/10/11             Principles of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) (pdf file)

11/14/11            High Pressure Minerals Lab. visit and experiments (Li Chung Ming and Pavel Zinin)

11/14/11            Microprobe laboratory  visit and experiments (Eric Hilebrand)


EXAM II: Monday, November 20th

              Questions (MS Word file)


Section V:  Characterization of Minerals and Functional Materials Under Extreme conditions

11/24/11          Thanksgiving

11/28/11           Measurements "Synthesis and Characterization Methods of Thin Film Materials for Solar Cells Applications (Nicolas Gaillard) (pdf file)

12/01/11            Brillouin spectroscopy: Application of Brillouin spectroscopy in Geophysics  and Materials Science (Pavel Zinin) (pdf file)

12/05/11            Characterization of minerals and functional materials under high pressure and high temperature (Pavel Zinin) (pdf file)

12/08/11            Advanced Techniques at the University of Hawaii. 11/29/10. Brillouin Spectroscopy Laboratory visit and experiments (Shoko Odake and Pavel Zinin) (pdf file)


Final Exam: December 12th        



     Recent advancements in Earth and Planetary sciences make it possible, and even more desirable, to image geological materials at the micro (10-6m) and nanoscale (10-9 m) level. The complete characterization of geological and planetary materials (Moon, Mars, asteroids, comets, Earth’s interior), at micro and nano-scale can be achieved only when full set of advanced techniques is used. It includes x-ray diffraction, electron microscopic techniques (including EDX, electron diffraction, etc.) combined with near field Raman scattering, and atomic force microscopy. Each of these techniques provides a unique set of information and insight into the structure and properties of the geological materials.

     This course is designed to give the student a fundamental background in advanced techniques used in geophysics and planetary sciences. The student will learn the principles the principles and operation of each of the instruments.  The course objectives will be accomplished through lecture and discussion of selected topics in class, through group exercises.

EXAMS: For GG 711 students, 100% of your grade is based on the exams (Two mid-tem exams of 30% each and a final comprehensive exam worth 40%).

READING: Consult the syllabus and read the assigned sections of the book or hand outs or sections posted in the web site before the material is covered in class. As you read, write down any questions you have and bring them to class. Ask questions in class.

GRADING:    A = 90 - 100,   B = 79 - 89,   C = 65 - 79,   D = 45 - 64

Supplementary Textbook:

  1. C. R. Brundle, C. Evans, A.  Jr. , and S. Wilson. "Encyclopedia of materials characterization:  surfaces, interfaces, thin films". Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1992.
  2. W. L. Bragg, Atomic Structure of Minerals (Cornell University Press, Ithaka, 1937).
  3. K. Nakamoto. "Infrared and Raman Spectra of Inorganics and Coordination Compounds", PartA, Theory and Applications in Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997.
  4. R. A. Serway and  J. S. Faugh. "College Physics". Saunders College Publ. New York. 1992.
  5. J. W. Goodman. "Introduction to Fourier Optics". McGraw-Hill, New York.1996.
  6. P. Zinin and W. Weise, "Theory and applications of acoustic microscopy", in T. Kundu ed., Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation: Engineering and Biological Material Characterization. CRC Press, Boca Raton, chapter 11, 654-724 (2004).
  7. M. G. Beghi, A. G. Every, and P. V. Zinin. "Brillouin Scattering Measurement of SAW Velocities for Determining Near-Surface Elastic Properties", in T. Kundu ed., Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation: Engineering and Biological Material Characterization. CRC Press, Boca Raton, chapter 10, 581-651 (2004).