Model of the Hawaiian plume from Ito, Dunn, Li, Wolfe, Gallego, and Fu, Seismic Anisotropy Associated and Shear Wave Splittingwith Plume-Plate Interaction JGR 2014. 

(a) Model shear-wave splitting due to mantle flow in the astheno-sphere (splitting accumulated over 200-100 km depths) beneath a fast moving (90 km/Myr) litho-spheric plate.  Circle denotes radius and location of plume stem; white curve marks boundary of sheared plume pancake.  (b) SWS at the surface including the added effects of fos-sil LPO, simulated with by imposing a lithospheric layer (i.e., Tp < 1100°C) with olivine a axes preferentially parallel to the black double arrow.  (c) The results from (b) are displayed as white bars on a bathymetry map of the Hawaiian hotspot.  Red bars show predicted fast directions that fit within a standard deviation (19.2°) of the the observed directions (Collins et al. [2012], black bars).  Model plate motion and fossil LPO are indicated by large white arrows.  (d) Perspective view of model plume showing two vertical cross-sections of temperature (red is hot, blue is cool) and the 1360°C isosurface, illuminated from the upper left.

See also

Gallego, A., G. Ito, R. A. Dunn (2013) Investigating seismic anisotropy beneath the Reykjanes Ridge using models of mantle flow, crystallographic evolution, and surface wave propagation, Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., doi:10.10002/ggge.20204. (URL) (Supplement)

Fu, Y. V., A. Li, G. Ito, S.-H. Hung (2012) Waveform modeling of shear wave splitting from anisotropic models of Iceland, Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 12, 6, Q12001, doi:10.1029/2012GC004369 (PDF)